Planet ALUG

February 15, 2019

Chris Lamb

Book Review: Stories of Your Life and Others

Stories of Your Life and Others (2002)

Ted Chiang

This compilation has been enjoying a renaissance in recent years due the success of the film Arrival (2016) which based on on the fourth and titular entry in this amazing collection. Don't infer too much from that however as whilst this is prima facie just another set of sci-fi tales it is science fiction in the way that Children of Men is, rather than Babylon 5.

A well-balanced mixture of worlds are evoked throughout with a combination of tales that variously mix the Aristotelian concepts of spectacle (opsis), themes (dianoia), character (ethos) and dialogue (lexis), perhaps best expressed practically in that some stories were extremely striking at the time — one even leading me to rebuff an advance at a bar — and a number were not as remarkable at the time yet continue to occupy my idle thoughts.

The opening tale which reworks the Tower of Babel into a construction project probably remains my overall favourite, but the Dark Materials-esque world summoned in Seventy-Two Letters continues to haunt my mind and lips of anyone else who has happened to come across it, perhaps becoming the quite-literal story of my life for a brief period. Indeed it could be said that, gifted as a paperback, whilst the whole collection followed me around across a number of locales, it continues to follow me — figuratively speaking that is — to this day.

Highly recommended to all readers but for those who enjoy discussing books with others it would more than repay any investment.

February 15, 2019 11:10 PM

February 14, 2019

Chris Lamb

Book review: Toujours Provence

Toujours Provence (2001)

Peter Mayle

In my favourite books of 2018 I mentioned that after enjoying the first book in the series I was looking forward to imbibing the second installment of humorous memoirs from British expat M. Mayle in the south of France.

However — and I should have seen this coming really — not only did it not live up to expectations I further can't quite put my finger on exactly why. All of the previous ingredients of the «mise en place» remain; the anecdotes on the locals' quirks & peccadilloes, the florid & often-beautiful phrasing and, of course, further lengthy expositions extolling the merits of a lengthy «dégustation»… but it somehow didn't engage or otherwise "hang together" quite right.

Some obvious candidates might be the lack of a structural through-line (the previous book used the conceit of the authors's renovation of a house in a small village through a particular calendar year) but that seems a little too superficial. Perhaps it was the over-reliance of "silly" stories such as the choir of toads or the truffle dog? Or a somewhat contrived set-piece about Pavarotti? I remain unsure.

That being said, the book is not at all bad or unworthy of your time, it's merely that whilst the next entry in the series remains on my reading list, I fear it has subconsciously slipped down a few places.

February 14, 2019 02:56 PM

February 12, 2019

Jonathan McDowell

Gemini NC14 + Debian

My main machine is a Dell E7240. It’s 5 years old and, while a bit slow sometimes, is generally still capable of doing all I need. However it mostly lives in an E-Port Plus II dock and gets treated like a desktop. As a result I don’t tend to move it around the house; the external monitor has a higher resolution than the internal 1080p and I’m often running things on it where it would be inconvenient to have to suspend it. So I decided I’d look for a basic laptop that could act as a simple terminal and web browser. This seems like an ideal job for a Chromebook, but I wanted a decent resolution screen and all of the cheap Chromebooks were 1366x768.

Looking around I found the Gemini Devices NC14. This is a Celeron N3350 based device with 4GB RAM and a 14” 1080p LCD. For £180 that seemed like a decent spec, much better than anything else I could see for under £200. Included storage is limited to a 32GB eMMC, with a slot for an m.2 SSD if desired, but as I’m not planning to store anything other than the OS/applications on the device that wasn’t a drawback to me. Box seem to be the only supplier, though they also list on Amazon. I chose Amazon, because that avoided paying extra for shipping to Northern Ireland.

The laptop comes with just a wall-wart style power supply - there’s no paperwork or anything else in the box. The PSU is a 12V/2A model and the cable is only slightly more than 1m long. However there’s also a USB-C power on the left side of the laptop and it will charge from that; didn’t work with any of my USB-C phone chargers, but worked just fine with my Lenovo laptop charger. The USB-C port does USB, as you’d expect, but surprisingly is also setup for DisplayPort - I plugged in a standard USB-C → HDMI adaptor and it worked perfectly. Additional ports include 2 standard USB 3.0 ports, a mini-HDMI port, a 3.5mm audio jack and a micro SD card slot. The whole device is pretty light too, coming in at about 1.37kg. It feels cheap, but not flimsy - not unreasonable given the price point. The keyboard is ok; not a great amount of travel and slightly offset from what I’m used to on the right hand side (there is a column of home/pgup/pgdn/end to the right of the enter key). The worst aspect is that the power button is a regular key in the top right, so easy to hit when looking for delete. The trackpad is serviceable; the middle button is a little tricky to hit sometimes, but there and useful.

Software-wise it is supplied with Windows 10 Home. I didn’t boot it, instead choosing to install Debian Buster via the Alpha 4 installer (Alpha 5 has since been released). There were no hiccups here; I did a UEFI based install overwriting the Windows installation and chose LXDE as my desktop environment. I’m still not entirely convinced by it (my other machines run GNOME3), but with the hardware being lower spec I didn’t want to try too much. I added Chrome - I plan to leave the laptop running Buster rather than testing, so regular updates to the browser direct from Google are appealing. LXDE’s default LXTerminal works just fine as the terminal emulator (though I did hit #908760 in regards to trying to click on URLs to open them).

How do I find it? I’m pretty pleased with my purchase. I’ve had it just over 2 weeks at the point of writing, and I’m using it to write this post (ssh’d into my laptop - I’ve longer term plans to use a different machine as the grunt). Chrome can sometimes be a little sluggish to open a new URL - I think this is due to the slow internal eMMC and trying to lookup autocomplete suggestions from previous visits - but there’s no problem with responsiveness after that point. Youtube videos play just fine. Running a whole bunch of terminals doesn’t cause any issues, as you’d hope. I’m running a single virtual desktop with Chrome full-screened and one with a bunch of lxterminals and it’s all very usable. Battery life is excellent, though acpi reports obviously inaccurate timings (currently, with 16% battery left, it’s reporting 5hr35 runtime) I think I’m probably seeing 8+ hours. One oddity I did see is with the keyboard; the enter key actually returns KEY_KPENTER which makes less unhappy, as well as some other things. I fixed it using xmodmap -e 'keycode 104 = Return NoSymbol Return', which maps it back to KEY_ENTER, and I’ve had a fix accepted into udev/systemd to fix it up automatically.

dmesg
microcode: microcode updated early to revision 0x32, date = 2018-05-11
Linux version 4.19.0-2-amd64 (debian-kernel@lists.debian.org) (gcc version 8.2.0 (Debian 8.2.0-14)) #1 SMP Debian 4.19.16-1 (2019-01-17)
Command line: BOOT_IMAGE=/boot/vmlinuz-4.19.0-2-amd64 root=UUID=57a681dd-c949-4287-be18-9d7b0f3f2b45 ro quiet
x86/fpu: Supporting XSAVE feature 0x001: 'x87 floating point registers'
x86/fpu: Supporting XSAVE feature 0x002: 'SSE registers'
x86/fpu: Supporting XSAVE feature 0x008: 'MPX bounds registers'
x86/fpu: Supporting XSAVE feature 0x010: 'MPX CSR'
x86/fpu: xstate_offset[3]:  576, xstate_sizes[3]:   64
x86/fpu: xstate_offset[4]:  640, xstate_sizes[4]:   64
x86/fpu: Enabled xstate features 0x1b, context size is 704 bytes, using 'compacted' format.
BIOS-provided physical RAM map:
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000000000000-0x000000000003efff] usable
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x000000000003f000-0x000000000003ffff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000000040000-0x000000000009dfff] usable
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x000000000009e000-0x00000000000fffff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000000100000-0x000000000fffffff] usable
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000010000000-0x0000000012150fff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000012151000-0x00000000768bcfff] usable
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x00000000768bd000-0x0000000079a0afff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000079a0b000-0x0000000079a26fff] ACPI data
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000079a27000-0x0000000079a8afff] ACPI NVS
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000079a8b000-0x0000000079ddffff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000079de0000-0x0000000079e34fff] type 20
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000079e35000-0x000000007a1acfff] usable
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x000000007a1ad000-0x000000007a1adfff] ACPI NVS
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x000000007a1ae000-0x000000007a1c7fff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x000000007a1c8000-0x000000007a762fff] usable
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x000000007a763000-0x000000007a764fff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x000000007a765000-0x000000007affffff] usable
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x000000007b000000-0x000000007fffffff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x00000000d0000000-0x00000000d0ffffff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x00000000e0000000-0x00000000efffffff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x00000000fe042000-0x00000000fe044fff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x00000000fe900000-0x00000000fe902fff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x00000000fec00000-0x00000000fec00fff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x00000000fed01000-0x00000000fed01fff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x00000000fee00000-0x00000000fee00fff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x00000000ff800000-0x00000000ffffffff] reserved
BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000100000000-0x000000017fffffff] usable
NX (Execute Disable) protection: active
efi: EFI v2.50 by American Megatrends
efi:  ACPI=0x79a10000  ACPI 2.0=0x79a10000  SMBIOS=0x79c98000  SMBIOS 3.0=0x79c97000  ESRT=0x73860f18 
secureboot: Secure boot could not be determined (mode 0)
SMBIOS 3.0.0 present.
DMI: Gemini Devices NC14V1006/To be filled by O.E.M., BIOS XW-BI-14-S133AR400-AA54M-046-A 01/04/2018
tsc: Fast TSC calibration using PIT
tsc: Detected 1094.400 MHz processor
e820: update [mem 0x00000000-0x00000fff] usable ==> reserved
e820: remove [mem 0x000a0000-0x000fffff] usable
last_pfn = 0x180000 max_arch_pfn = 0x400000000
MTRR default type: uncachable
MTRR fixed ranges enabled:
  00000-6FFFF write-back
  70000-7FFFF uncachable
  80000-9FFFF write-back
  A0000-BFFFF uncachable
  C0000-FFFFF write-protect
MTRR variable ranges enabled:
  0 base 0000000000 mask 7F80000000 write-back
  1 base 007C000000 mask 7FFC000000 uncachable
  2 base 007B000000 mask 7FFF000000 uncachable
  3 base 0100000000 mask 7F80000000 write-back
  4 base 00FF800000 mask 7FFF800000 write-combining
  5 base 0090000000 mask 7FF0000000 write-through
  6 disabled
  7 disabled
  8 disabled
  9 disabled
x86/PAT: Configuration [0-7]: WB  WC  UC- UC  WB  WP  UC- WT  
last_pfn = 0x7b000 max_arch_pfn = 0x400000000
esrt: Reserving ESRT space from 0x0000000073860f18 to 0x0000000073860f50.
Base memory trampoline at [(____ptrval____)] 97000 size 24576
Using GB pages for direct mapping
BRK [0x19001000, 0x19001fff] PGTABLE
BRK [0x19002000, 0x19002fff] PGTABLE
BRK [0x19003000, 0x19003fff] PGTABLE
BRK [0x19004000, 0x19004fff] PGTABLE
BRK [0x19005000, 0x19005fff] PGTABLE
BRK [0x19006000, 0x19006fff] PGTABLE
BRK [0x19007000, 0x19007fff] PGTABLE
RAMDISK: [mem 0x34d25000-0x36689fff]
ACPI: Early table checksum verification disabled
ACPI: RSDP 0x0000000079A10000 000024 (v02 ALASKA)
ACPI: XSDT 0x0000000079A100C0 0000F4 (v01 ALASKA A M I    01072009 AMI  00010013)
ACPI: FACP 0x0000000079A19030 000114 (v06 ALASKA A M I    01072009 AMI  00010013)
ACPI: DSDT 0x0000000079A10260 008DCF (v02 ALASKA A M I    01072009 INTL 20120913)
ACPI: FACS 0x0000000079A8A080 000040
ACPI: FPDT 0x0000000079A19150 000044 (v01 ALASKA A M I    01072009 AMI  00010013)
ACPI: FIDT 0x0000000079A191A0 00009C (v01 ALASKA A M I    01072009 AMI  00010013)
ACPI: MSDM 0x0000000079A19240 000055 (v03 ALASKA A M I    01072009 AMI  00010013)
ACPI: MCFG 0x0000000079A192A0 00003C (v01 ALASKA A M I    01072009 MSFT 00000097)
ACPI: DBG2 0x0000000079A192E0 000072 (v00 INTEL  EDK2     00000003 BRXT 0100000D)
ACPI: DBGP 0x0000000079A19360 000034 (v01 INTEL  EDK2     00000003 BRXT 0100000D)
ACPI: HPET 0x0000000079A193A0 000038 (v01 INTEL  EDK2     00000003 BRXT 0100000D)
ACPI: LPIT 0x0000000079A193E0 00005C (v01 INTEL  EDK2     00000003 BRXT 0100000D)
ACPI: APIC 0x0000000079A19440 000084 (v03 INTEL  EDK2     00000003 BRXT 0100000D)
ACPI: NPKT 0x0000000079A194D0 000065 (v01 INTEL  EDK2     00000003 BRXT 0100000D)
ACPI: PRAM 0x0000000079A19540 000030 (v01 INTEL  EDK2     00000003 BRXT 0100000D)
ACPI: WSMT 0x0000000079A19570 000028 (v01 INTEL  EDK2     00000003 BRXT 0100000D)
ACPI: SSDT 0x0000000079A195A0 00414C (v02 INTEL  DptfTab  00000003 BRXT 0100000D)
ACPI: SSDT 0x0000000079A1D6F0 003621 (v02 INTEL  RVPRtd3  00000003 BRXT 0100000D)
ACPI: SSDT 0x0000000079A20D20 00077D (v02 INTEL  UsbCTabl 00000003 BRXT 0100000D)
ACPI: SSDT 0x0000000079A214A0 001611 (v01 Intel_ Platform 00001000 INTL 20120913)
ACPI: SSDT 0x0000000079A22AC0 0003DF (v02 PmRef  Cpu0Ist  00003000 INTL 20120913)
ACPI: SSDT 0x0000000079A22EA0 00072B (v02 CpuRef CpuSsdt  00003000 INTL 20120913)
ACPI: SSDT 0x0000000079A235D0 00032D (v02 PmRef  Cpu0Tst  00003000 INTL 20120913)
ACPI: SSDT 0x0000000079A23900 00017C (v02 PmRef  ApTst    00003000 INTL 20120913)
ACPI: SSDT 0x0000000079A23A80 002760 (v02 SaSsdt SaSsdt   00003000 INTL 20120913)
ACPI: UEFI 0x0000000079A261E0 000042 (v01 ALASKA A M I    00000000      00000000)
ACPI: TPM2 0x0000000079A26230 000034 (v03        Tpm2Tabl 00000001 AMI  00000000)
ACPI: DMAR 0x0000000079A26270 0000A8 (v01 INTEL  EDK2     00000003 BRXT 0100000D)
ACPI: WDAT 0x0000000079A26320 000104 (v01                 00000000      00000000)
ACPI: Local APIC address 0xfee00000
No NUMA configuration found
Faking a node at [mem 0x0000000000000000-0x000000017fffffff]
NODE_DATA(0) allocated [mem 0x17fff8000-0x17fffcfff]
Zone ranges:
  DMA      [mem 0x0000000000001000-0x0000000000ffffff]
  DMA32    [mem 0x0000000001000000-0x00000000ffffffff]
  Normal   [mem 0x0000000100000000-0x000000017fffffff]
  Device   empty
Movable zone start for each node
Early memory node ranges
  node   0: [mem 0x0000000000001000-0x000000000003efff]
  node   0: [mem 0x0000000000040000-0x000000000009dfff]
  node   0: [mem 0x0000000000100000-0x000000000fffffff]
  node   0: [mem 0x0000000012151000-0x00000000768bcfff]
  node   0: [mem 0x0000000079e35000-0x000000007a1acfff]
  node   0: [mem 0x000000007a1c8000-0x000000007a762fff]
  node   0: [mem 0x000000007a765000-0x000000007affffff]
  node   0: [mem 0x0000000100000000-0x000000017fffffff]
Reserved but unavailable: 98 pages
Initmem setup node 0 [mem 0x0000000000001000-0x000000017fffffff]
On node 0 totalpages: 1005750
  DMA zone: 64 pages used for memmap
  DMA zone: 23 pages reserved
  DMA zone: 3996 pages, LIFO batch:0
  DMA32 zone: 7461 pages used for memmap
  DMA32 zone: 477466 pages, LIFO batch:63
  Normal zone: 8192 pages used for memmap
  Normal zone: 524288 pages, LIFO batch:63
Reserving Intel graphics memory at [mem 0x7c000000-0x7fffffff]
ACPI: PM-Timer IO Port: 0x408
ACPI: Local APIC address 0xfee00000
ACPI: LAPIC_NMI (acpi_id[0x01] high level lint[0x1])
ACPI: LAPIC_NMI (acpi_id[0x02] high level lint[0x1])
ACPI: LAPIC_NMI (acpi_id[0x03] high level lint[0x1])
ACPI: LAPIC_NMI (acpi_id[0x04] high level lint[0x1])
IOAPIC[0]: apic_id 1, version 32, address 0xfec00000, GSI 0-119
ACPI: INT_SRC_OVR (bus 0 bus_irq 0 global_irq 2 dfl dfl)
ACPI: INT_SRC_OVR (bus 0 bus_irq 9 global_irq 9 low level)
ACPI: IRQ0 used by override.
ACPI: IRQ9 used by override.
Using ACPI (MADT) for SMP configuration information
ACPI: HPET id: 0x8086a701 base: 0xfed00000
smpboot: Allowing 4 CPUs, 2 hotplug CPUs
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x00000000-0x00000fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x0003f000-0x0003ffff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x0009e000-0x000fffff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x10000000-0x12150fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x768bd000-0x79a0afff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x79a0b000-0x79a26fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x79a27000-0x79a8afff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x79a8b000-0x79ddffff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x79de0000-0x79e34fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x7a1ad000-0x7a1adfff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x7a1ae000-0x7a1c7fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x7a763000-0x7a764fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x7b000000-0x7fffffff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x80000000-0xcfffffff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xd0000000-0xd0ffffff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xd1000000-0xdfffffff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xe0000000-0xefffffff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xf0000000-0xfe041fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xfe042000-0xfe044fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xfe045000-0xfe8fffff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xfe900000-0xfe902fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xfe903000-0xfebfffff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xfec00000-0xfec00fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xfec01000-0xfed00fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xfed01000-0xfed01fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xfed02000-0xfedfffff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xfee00000-0xfee00fff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xfee01000-0xff7fffff]
PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0xff800000-0xffffffff]
[mem 0x80000000-0xcfffffff] available for PCI devices
Booting paravirtualized kernel on bare hardware
clocksource: refined-jiffies: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 7645519600211568 ns
random: get_random_bytes called from start_kernel+0x93/0x531 with crng_init=0
setup_percpu: NR_CPUS:512 nr_cpumask_bits:512 nr_cpu_ids:4 nr_node_ids:1
percpu: Embedded 44 pages/cpu @(____ptrval____) s143192 r8192 d28840 u524288
pcpu-alloc: s143192 r8192 d28840 u524288 alloc=1*2097152
pcpu-alloc: [0] 0 1 2 3 
Built 1 zonelists, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 990010
Policy zone: Normal
Kernel command line: BOOT_IMAGE=/boot/vmlinuz-4.19.0-2-amd64 root=UUID=57a681dd-c949-4287-be18-9d7b0f3f2b45 ro quiet
Calgary: detecting Calgary via BIOS EBDA area
Calgary: Unable to locate Rio Grande table in EBDA - bailing!
Memory: 3729732K/4023000K available (10252K kernel code, 1236K rwdata, 3196K rodata, 1572K init, 2332K bss, 293268K reserved, 0K cma-reserved)
SLUB: HWalign=64, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=4, Nodes=1
ftrace: allocating 31615 entries in 124 pages
rcu: Hierarchical RCU implementation.
rcu: 	RCU restricting CPUs from NR_CPUS=512 to nr_cpu_ids=4.
rcu: Adjusting geometry for rcu_fanout_leaf=16, nr_cpu_ids=4
NR_IRQS: 33024, nr_irqs: 1024, preallocated irqs: 16
Console: colour dummy device 80x25
console [tty0] enabled
ACPI: Core revision 20180810
clocksource: hpet: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 99544814920 ns
hpet clockevent registered
APIC: Switch to symmetric I/O mode setup
DMAR: Host address width 39
DMAR: DRHD base: 0x000000fed64000 flags: 0x0
DMAR: dmar0: reg_base_addr fed64000 ver 1:0 cap 1c0000c40660462 ecap 7e3ff0505e
DMAR: DRHD base: 0x000000fed65000 flags: 0x1
DMAR: dmar1: reg_base_addr fed65000 ver 1:0 cap d2008c40660462 ecap f050da
DMAR: RMRR base: 0x000000799b6000 end: 0x000000799d5fff
DMAR: RMRR base: 0x0000007b800000 end: 0x0000007fffffff
DMAR-IR: IOAPIC id 1 under DRHD base  0xfed65000 IOMMU 1
DMAR-IR: HPET id 0 under DRHD base 0xfed65000
DMAR-IR: Queued invalidation will be enabled to support x2apic and Intr-remapping.
DMAR-IR: Enabled IRQ remapping in x2apic mode
x2apic enabled
Switched APIC routing to cluster x2apic.
..TIMER: vector=0x30 apic1=0 pin1=2 apic2=-1 pin2=-1
clocksource: tsc-early: mask: 0xffffffffffffffff max_cycles: 0xfc66f4fc7c, max_idle_ns: 440795224246 ns
Calibrating delay loop (skipped), value calculated using timer frequency.. 2188.80 BogoMIPS (lpj=4377600)
pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
Security Framework initialized
Yama: disabled by default; enable with sysctl kernel.yama.*
AppArmor: AppArmor initialized
Dentry cache hash table entries: 524288 (order: 10, 4194304 bytes)
Inode-cache hash table entries: 262144 (order: 9, 2097152 bytes)
Mount-cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
Mountpoint-cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
mce: CPU supports 7 MCE banks
Last level iTLB entries: 4KB 48, 2MB 0, 4MB 0
Last level dTLB entries: 4KB 0, 2MB 0, 4MB 0, 1GB 0
Spectre V2 : Mitigation: Full generic retpoline
Spectre V2 : Spectre v2 / SpectreRSB mitigation: Filling RSB on context switch
Spectre V2 : Enabling Restricted Speculation for firmware calls
Spectre V2 : mitigation: Enabling conditional Indirect Branch Prediction Barrier
Freeing SMP alternatives memory: 24K
TSC deadline timer enabled
smpboot: CPU0: Intel(R) Celeron(R) CPU N3350 @ 1.10GHz (family: 0x6, model: 0x5c, stepping: 0x9)
Performance Events: PEBS fmt3+, Goldmont events, 32-deep LBR, full-width counters, Intel PMU driver.
... version:                4
... bit width:              48
... generic registers:      4
... value mask:             0000ffffffffffff
... max period:             00007fffffffffff
... fixed-purpose events:   3
... event mask:             000000070000000f
rcu: Hierarchical SRCU implementation.
NMI watchdog: Enabled. Permanently consumes one hw-PMU counter.
smp: Bringing up secondary CPUs ...
x86: Booting SMP configuration:
.... node  #0, CPUs:      #1
smp: Brought up 1 node, 2 CPUs
smpboot: Max logical packages: 2
smpboot: Total of 2 processors activated (4377.60 BogoMIPS)
devtmpfs: initialized
x86/mm: Memory block size: 128MB
PM: Registering ACPI NVS region [mem 0x79a27000-0x79a8afff] (409600 bytes)
PM: Registering ACPI NVS region [mem 0x7a1ad000-0x7a1adfff] (4096 bytes)
clocksource: jiffies: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 7645041785100000 ns
futex hash table entries: 1024 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
pinctrl core: initialized pinctrl subsystem
NET: Registered protocol family 16
audit: initializing netlink subsys (disabled)
audit: type=2000 audit(1549808778.056:1): state=initialized audit_enabled=0 res=1
cpuidle: using governor ladder
cpuidle: using governor menu
ACPI: bus type PCI registered
acpiphp: ACPI Hot Plug PCI Controller Driver version: 0.5
PCI: MMCONFIG for domain 0000 [bus 00-ff] at [mem 0xe0000000-0xefffffff] (base 0xe0000000)
PCI: MMCONFIG at [mem 0xe0000000-0xefffffff] reserved in E820
PCI: Using configuration type 1 for base access
HugeTLB registered 1.00 GiB page size, pre-allocated 0 pages
HugeTLB registered 2.00 MiB page size, pre-allocated 0 pages
ACPI: Added _OSI(Module Device)
ACPI: Added _OSI(Processor Device)
ACPI: Added _OSI(3.0 _SCP Extensions)
ACPI: Added _OSI(Processor Aggregator Device)
ACPI: Added _OSI(Linux-Dell-Video)
ACPI: Added _OSI(Linux-Lenovo-NV-HDMI-Audio)
ACPI: 10 ACPI AML tables successfully acquired and loaded
ACPI: Dynamic OEM Table Load:
ACPI: SSDT 0xFFFF975CBA502800 000102 (v02 PmRef  Cpu0Cst  00003001 INTL 20120913)
ACPI: Dynamic OEM Table Load:
ACPI: SSDT 0xFFFF975CBA5A2A00 00015F (v02 PmRef  ApIst    00003000 INTL 20120913)
ACPI: Dynamic OEM Table Load:
ACPI: SSDT 0xFFFF975CBA4CA840 00008D (v02 PmRef  ApCst    00003000 INTL 20120913)
ACPI: EC: EC started
ACPI: EC: interrupt blocked
ACPI: \_SB_.PCI0.SBRG.H_EC: Used as first EC
ACPI: \_SB_.PCI0.SBRG.H_EC: GPE=0x2c, EC_CMD/EC_SC=0x66, EC_DATA=0x62
ACPI: \_SB_.PCI0.SBRG.H_EC: Used as boot DSDT EC to handle transactions
ACPI: Interpreter enabled
ACPI: (supports S0 S3 S4 S5)
ACPI: Using IOAPIC for interrupt routing
PCI: Using host bridge windows from ACPI; if necessary, use "pci=nocrs" and report a bug
ACPI: Enabled 9 GPEs in block 00 to 7F
ACPI: Power Resource [SPPR] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [SPPR] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [UPPR] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [PX03] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [UPPR] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [UPPR] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [UPPR] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [UPPR] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [UPPR] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [USBC] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [LSPR] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [SDPR] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [PXP] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [PXP] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [PXP] (off)
ACPI: Power Resource [PXP] (off)
ACPI: Power Resource [PAUD] (on)
ACPI: Power Resource [FN00] (on)
ACPI: PCI Root Bridge [PCI0] (domain 0000 [bus 00-ff])
acpi PNP0A08:00: _OSC: OS supports [ExtendedConfig ASPM ClockPM Segments MSI]
acpi PNP0A08:00: _OSC: OS now controls [PCIeHotplug SHPCHotplug PME AER PCIeCapability LTR]
PCI host bridge to bus 0000:00
pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [io  0x0070-0x0077]
pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [io  0x0000-0x006f window]
pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [io  0x0078-0x0cf7 window]
pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [io  0x0d00-0xffff window]
pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [mem 0x7c000001-0x7fffffff window]
pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [mem 0x7b800001-0x7bffffff window]
pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [mem 0x80000000-0xcfffffff window]
pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [mem 0xe0000000-0xefffffff window]
pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [bus 00-ff]
pci 0000:00:00.0: [8086:5af0] type 00 class 0x060000
pci 0000:00:00.1: [8086:5a8c] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:00.1: reg 0x10: [mem 0x80000000-0x80007fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:02.0: [8086:5a85] type 00 class 0x030000
pci 0000:00:02.0: reg 0x10: [mem 0x81000000-0x81ffffff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:02.0: reg 0x18: [mem 0x90000000-0x9fffffff 64bit pref]
pci 0000:00:02.0: reg 0x20: [io  0xf000-0xf03f]
pci 0000:00:02.0: BAR 2: assigned to efifb
pci 0000:00:0e.0: [8086:5a98] type 00 class 0x040300
pci 0000:00:0e.0: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82210000-0x82213fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:0e.0: reg 0x20: [mem 0x82000000-0x820fffff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:0e.0: PME# supported from D0 D3hot D3cold
pci 0000:00:0f.0: [8086:5a9a] type 00 class 0x078000
pci 0000:00:0f.0: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82239000-0x82239fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:0f.0: PME# supported from D3hot
pci 0000:00:14.0: [8086:5ad7] type 01 class 0x060400
pci 0000:00:14.0: PME# supported from D0 D3hot D3cold
pci 0000:00:15.0: [8086:5aa8] type 00 class 0x0c0330
pci 0000:00:15.0: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82200000-0x8220ffff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:15.0: PME# supported from D3hot D3cold
pci 0000:00:16.0: [8086:5aac] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:16.0: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82236000-0x82236fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:16.0: reg 0x18: [mem 0x82235000-0x82235fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:16.1: [8086:5aae] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:16.1: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82234000-0x82234fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:16.1: reg 0x18: [mem 0x82233000-0x82233fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:16.2: [8086:5ab0] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:16.2: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82232000-0x82232fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:16.2: reg 0x18: [mem 0x82231000-0x82231fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:16.3: [8086:5ab2] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:16.3: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82230000-0x82230fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:16.3: reg 0x18: [mem 0x8222f000-0x8222ffff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:17.0: [8086:5ab4] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:17.0: reg 0x10: [mem 0x8222e000-0x8222efff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:17.0: reg 0x18: [mem 0x8222d000-0x8222dfff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:17.1: [8086:5ab6] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:17.1: reg 0x10: [mem 0x8222c000-0x8222cfff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:17.1: reg 0x18: [mem 0x8222b000-0x8222bfff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:17.2: [8086:5ab8] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:17.2: reg 0x10: [mem 0x8222a000-0x8222afff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:17.2: reg 0x18: [mem 0x82229000-0x82229fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:17.3: [8086:5aba] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:17.3: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82228000-0x82228fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:17.3: reg 0x18: [mem 0x82227000-0x82227fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:18.0: [8086:5abc] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:18.0: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82226000-0x82226fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:18.0: reg 0x18: [mem 0x82225000-0x82225fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:18.1: [8086:5abe] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:18.1: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82224000-0x82224fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:18.1: reg 0x18: [mem 0x82223000-0x82223fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:18.2: [8086:5ac0] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:18.2: reg 0x10: [mem 0xfea10000-0xfea10fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:18.2: reg 0x18: [mem 0x00000000-0x00000fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:18.3: [8086:5aee] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:18.3: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82222000-0x82222fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:18.3: reg 0x18: [mem 0x82221000-0x82221fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:19.0: [8086:5ac2] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:19.0: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82220000-0x82220fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:19.0: reg 0x18: [mem 0x8221f000-0x8221ffff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:19.1: [8086:5ac4] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:19.1: reg 0x10: [mem 0x8221e000-0x8221efff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:19.1: reg 0x18: [mem 0x8221d000-0x8221dfff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:19.2: [8086:5ac6] type 00 class 0x118000
pci 0000:00:19.2: reg 0x10: [mem 0x8221c000-0x8221cfff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:19.2: reg 0x18: [mem 0x8221b000-0x8221bfff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:1b.0: [8086:5aca] type 00 class 0x080501
pci 0000:00:1b.0: reg 0x10: [mem 0x8221a000-0x8221afff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:1b.0: reg 0x18: [mem 0x82219000-0x82219fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:1c.0: [8086:5acc] type 00 class 0x080501
pci 0000:00:1c.0: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82218000-0x82218fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:1c.0: reg 0x18: [mem 0x82217000-0x82217fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:1e.0: [8086:5ad0] type 00 class 0x080501
pci 0000:00:1e.0: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82216000-0x82216fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:1e.0: reg 0x18: [mem 0x82215000-0x82215fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:1f.0: [8086:5ae8] type 00 class 0x060100
pci 0000:00:1f.1: [8086:5ad4] type 00 class 0x0c0500
pci 0000:00:1f.1: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82214000-0x822140ff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:1f.1: reg 0x20: [io  0xf040-0xf05f]
pci 0000:01:00.0: [8086:3165] type 00 class 0x028000
pci 0000:01:00.0: reg 0x10: [mem 0x82100000-0x82101fff 64bit]
pci 0000:01:00.0: Upstream bridge's Max Payload Size set to 128 (was 256, max 256)
pci 0000:01:00.0: Max Payload Size set to 128 (was 128, max 128)
pci 0000:01:00.0: PME# supported from D0 D3hot D3cold
pci 0000:00:14.0: PCI bridge to [bus 01]
pci 0000:00:14.0:   bridge window [mem 0x82100000-0x821fffff]
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKA] (IRQs 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 14 *15), disabled.
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKB] (IRQs 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 14 *15), disabled.
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKC] (IRQs 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 14 *15), disabled.
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKD] (IRQs 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 14 *15), disabled.
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKE] (IRQs 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 14 *15), disabled.
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKF] (IRQs 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 14 *15), disabled.
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKG] (IRQs 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 14 *15), disabled.
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKH] (IRQs 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 14 *15), disabled.
ACPI Warning: GPE type mismatch (level/edge) (20180810/evxface-792)
ACPI: EC: interrupt unblocked
ACPI: EC: event unblocked
ACPI: \_SB_.PCI0.SBRG.H_EC: GPE=0x2c, EC_CMD/EC_SC=0x66, EC_DATA=0x62
ACPI: \_SB_.PCI0.SBRG.H_EC: Used as boot DSDT EC to handle transactions and events
pci 0000:00:02.0: vgaarb: setting as boot VGA device
pci 0000:00:02.0: vgaarb: VGA device added: decodes=io+mem,owns=io+mem,locks=none
pci 0000:00:02.0: vgaarb: bridge control possible
vgaarb: loaded
pps_core: LinuxPPS API ver. 1 registered
pps_core: Software ver. 5.3.6 - Copyright 2005-2007 Rodolfo Giometti <giometti@linux.it>
PTP clock support registered
EDAC MC: Ver: 3.0.0
Registered efivars operations
PCI: Using ACPI for IRQ routing
PCI: pci_cache_line_size set to 64 bytes
pci 0000:00:18.2: can't claim BAR 0 [mem 0xfea10000-0xfea10fff 64bit]: no compatible bridge window
e820: reserve RAM buffer [mem 0x0003f000-0x0003ffff]
e820: reserve RAM buffer [mem 0x0009e000-0x0009ffff]
e820: reserve RAM buffer [mem 0x768bd000-0x77ffffff]
e820: reserve RAM buffer [mem 0x7a1ad000-0x7bffffff]
e820: reserve RAM buffer [mem 0x7a763000-0x7bffffff]
e820: reserve RAM buffer [mem 0x7b000000-0x7bffffff]
hpet0: at MMIO 0xfed00000, IRQs 2, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
hpet0: 8 comparators, 64-bit 19.200000 MHz counter
clocksource: Switched to clocksource tsc-early
VFS: Disk quotas dquot_6.6.0
VFS: Dquot-cache hash table entries: 512 (order 0, 4096 bytes)
AppArmor: AppArmor Filesystem Enabled
pnp: PnP ACPI init
system 00:00: [io  0x0680-0x069f] has been reserved
system 00:00: [io  0x0400-0x047f] has been reserved
system 00:00: [io  0x0500-0x05fe] has been reserved
system 00:00: [io  0x0600-0x061f] has been reserved
system 00:00: [io  0x164e-0x164f] has been reserved
system 00:00: Plug and Play ACPI device, IDs PNP0c02 (active)
system 00:01: [mem 0xe0000000-0xefffffff] has been reserved
system 00:01: [mem 0xfea00000-0xfeafffff] has been reserved
system 00:01: [mem 0xfed01000-0xfed01fff] has been reserved
system 00:01: [mem 0xfed03000-0xfed03fff] has been reserved
system 00:01: [mem 0xfed06000-0xfed06fff] has been reserved
system 00:01: [mem 0xfed08000-0xfed09fff] has been reserved
system 00:01: [mem 0xfed80000-0xfedbffff] has been reserved
system 00:01: [mem 0xfed1c000-0xfed1cfff] has been reserved
system 00:01: [mem 0xfee00000-0xfeefffff] could not be reserved
system 00:01: Plug and Play ACPI device, IDs PNP0c02 (active)
pnp 00:02: Plug and Play ACPI device, IDs PNP0303 (active)
pnp 00:03: Plug and Play ACPI device, IDs PNP0b00 (active)
pnp: PnP ACPI: found 4 devices
clocksource: acpi_pm: mask: 0xffffff max_cycles: 0xffffff, max_idle_ns: 2085701024 ns
pci 0000:00:18.2: BAR 0: assigned [mem 0x80008000-0x80008fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:18.2: BAR 2: assigned [mem 0x80009000-0x80009fff 64bit]
pci 0000:00:14.0: PCI bridge to [bus 01]
pci 0000:00:14.0:   bridge window [mem 0x82100000-0x821fffff]
pci_bus 0000:00: resource 4 [io  0x0070-0x0077]
pci_bus 0000:00: resource 5 [io  0x0000-0x006f window]
pci_bus 0000:00: resource 6 [io  0x0078-0x0cf7 window]
pci_bus 0000:00: resource 7 [io  0x0d00-0xffff window]
pci_bus 0000:00: resource 8 [mem 0x7c000001-0x7fffffff window]
pci_bus 0000:00: resource 9 [mem 0x7b800001-0x7bffffff window]
pci_bus 0000:00: resource 10 [mem 0x80000000-0xcfffffff window]
pci_bus 0000:00: resource 11 [mem 0xe0000000-0xefffffff window]
pci_bus 0000:01: resource 1 [mem 0x82100000-0x821fffff]
NET: Registered protocol family 2
tcp_listen_portaddr_hash hash table entries: 2048 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
TCP established hash table entries: 32768 (order: 6, 262144 bytes)
TCP bind hash table entries: 32768 (order: 7, 524288 bytes)
TCP: Hash tables configured (established 32768 bind 32768)
UDP hash table entries: 2048 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
UDP-Lite hash table entries: 2048 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
NET: Registered protocol family 1
pci 0000:00:02.0: Video device with shadowed ROM at [mem 0x000c0000-0x000dffff]
PCI: CLS 0 bytes, default 64
Unpacking initramfs...
Freeing initrd memory: 26004K
PCI-DMA: Using software bounce buffering for IO (SWIOTLB)
software IO TLB: mapped [mem 0x6cb91000-0x70b91000] (64MB)
clocksource: tsc: mask: 0xffffffffffffffff max_cycles: 0xfc66f4fc7c, max_idle_ns: 440795224246 ns
clocksource: Switched to clocksource tsc
Initialise system trusted keyrings
workingset: timestamp_bits=40 max_order=20 bucket_order=0
zbud: loaded
pstore: using deflate compression
Key type asymmetric registered
Asymmetric key parser 'x509' registered
Block layer SCSI generic (bsg) driver version 0.4 loaded (major 247)
io scheduler noop registered
io scheduler deadline registered
io scheduler cfq registered (default)
io scheduler mq-deadline registered
pcieport 0000:00:14.0: Signaling PME with IRQ 122
shpchp: Standard Hot Plug PCI Controller Driver version: 0.4
efifb: probing for efifb
efifb: framebuffer at 0x90000000, using 8128k, total 8128k
efifb: mode is 1920x1080x32, linelength=7680, pages=1
efifb: scrolling: redraw
efifb: Truecolor: size=8:8:8:8, shift=24:16:8:0
Console: switching to colour frame buffer device 240x67
fb0: EFI VGA frame buffer device
intel_idle: MWAIT substates: 0x11242020
intel_idle: v0.4.1 model 0x5C
intel_idle: lapic_timer_reliable_states 0xffffffff
Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 4 ports, IRQ sharing enabled
Linux agpgart interface v0.103
AMD IOMMUv2 driver by Joerg Roedel <jroedel@suse.de>
AMD IOMMUv2 functionality not available on this system
i8042: PNP: PS/2 Controller [PNP0303:PS2K] at 0x60,0x64 irq 1
i8042: PNP: PS/2 appears to have AUX port disabled, if this is incorrect please boot with i8042.nopnp
serio: i8042 KBD port at 0x60,0x64 irq 1
mousedev: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice
rtc_cmos 00:03: RTC can wake from S4
rtc_cmos 00:03: registered as rtc0
rtc_cmos 00:03: alarms up to one month, y3k, 242 bytes nvram, hpet irqs
intel_pstate: Intel P-state driver initializing
ledtrig-cpu: registered to indicate activity on CPUs
NET: Registered protocol family 10
input: AT Translated Set 2 keyboard as /devices/platform/i8042/serio0/input/input0
Segment Routing with IPv6
mip6: Mobile IPv6
NET: Registered protocol family 17
mpls_gso: MPLS GSO support
microcode: sig=0x506c9, pf=0x1, revision=0x32
microcode: Microcode Update Driver: v2.2.
sched_clock: Marking stable (2917959387, -2501360)->(2921251562, -5793535)
registered taskstats version 1
Loading compiled-in X.509 certificates
Loaded X.509 cert 'secure-boot-test-key-lfaraone: 97c1b25cddf9873ca78a58f3d73bf727d2cf78ff'
zswap: loaded using pool lzo/zbud
AppArmor: AppArmor sha1 policy hashing enabled
rtc_cmos 00:03: setting system clock to 2019-02-10 14:26:20 UTC (1549808780)
Freeing unused kernel image memory: 1572K
Write protecting the kernel read-only data: 16384k
Freeing unused kernel image memory: 2028K
Freeing unused kernel image memory: 900K
x86/mm: Checked W+X mappings: passed, no W+X pages found.
Run /init as init process
hidraw: raw HID events driver (C) Jiri Kosina
thermal LNXTHERM:00: registered as thermal_zone0
ACPI: Thermal Zone [TZ01] (24 C)
ACPI: bus type USB registered
usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
usbcore: registered new device driver usb
i801_smbus 0000:00:1f.1: can't derive routing for PCI INT A
i801_smbus 0000:00:1f.1: PCI INT A: not connected
i801_smbus 0000:00:1f.1: SPD Write Disable is set
i801_smbus 0000:00:1f.1: SMBus using polling
lpc_ich 0000:00:1f.0: I/O space for ACPI uninitialized
sdhci: Secure Digital Host Controller Interface driver
sdhci: Copyright(c) Pierre Ossman
sdhci-pci 0000:00:1b.0: SDHCI controller found [8086:5aca] (rev b)
sdhci-pci 0000:00:1b.0: enabling device (0000 -> 0002)
xhci_hcd 0000:00:15.0: xHCI Host Controller
xhci_hcd 0000:00:15.0: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 1
xhci_hcd 0000:00:15.0: hcc params 0x200077c1 hci version 0x100 quirks 0x0000000081109810
xhci_hcd 0000:00:15.0: cache line size of 64 is not supported
cryptd: max_cpu_qlen set to 1000
usb usb1: New USB device found, idVendor=1d6b, idProduct=0002, bcdDevice= 4.19
usb usb1: New USB device strings: Mfr=3, Product=2, SerialNumber=1
usb usb1: Product: xHCI Host Controller
usb usb1: Manufacturer: Linux 4.19.0-2-amd64 xhci-hcd
usb usb1: SerialNumber: 0000:00:15.0
hub 1-0:1.0: USB hub found
hub 1-0:1.0: 8 ports detected
mmc0: SDHCI controller on PCI [0000:00:1b.0] using ADMA 64-bit
sdhci-pci 0000:00:1c.0: SDHCI controller found [8086:5acc] (rev b)
SSE version of gcm_enc/dec engaged.
mmc1: SDHCI controller on PCI [0000:00:1c.0] using ADMA 64-bit
sdhci-pci 0000:00:1e.0: SDHCI controller found [8086:5ad0] (rev b)
sdhci-pci 0000:00:1e.0: enabling device (0000 -> 0002)
i2c_hid i2c-SYNA3602:00: i2c-SYNA3602:00 supply vdd not found, using dummy regulator
i2c_hid i2c-SYNA3602:00: Linked as a consumer to regulator.0
i2c_hid i2c-SYNA3602:00: i2c-SYNA3602:00 supply vddl not found, using dummy regulator
xhci_hcd 0000:00:15.0: xHCI Host Controller
xhci_hcd 0000:00:15.0: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 2
xhci_hcd 0000:00:15.0: Host supports USB 3.0  SuperSpeed
usb usb2: New USB device found, idVendor=1d6b, idProduct=0003, bcdDevice= 4.19
usb usb2: New USB device strings: Mfr=3, Product=2, SerialNumber=1
usb usb2: Product: xHCI Host Controller
usb usb2: Manufacturer: Linux 4.19.0-2-amd64 xhci-hcd
usb usb2: SerialNumber: 0000:00:15.0
hub 2-0:1.0: USB hub found
hub 2-0:1.0: 7 ports detected
mmc2: SDHCI controller on PCI [0000:00:1e.0] using ADMA 64-bit
mmc1: new HS400 MMC card at address 0001
mmcblk1: mmc1:0001 DF4032 29.1 GiB 
mmcblk1boot0: mmc1:0001 DF4032 partition 1 4.00 MiB
mmcblk1boot1: mmc1:0001 DF4032 partition 2 4.00 MiB
mmcblk1rpmb: mmc1:0001 DF4032 partition 3 4.00 MiB, chardev (245:0)
 mmcblk1: p1 p2 p3 p4
random: fast init done
dw-apb-uart.8: ttyS0 at MMIO 0x82226000 (irq = 4, base_baud = 115200) is a 16550A
dw-apb-uart.9: ttyS1 at MMIO 0x82224000 (irq = 5, base_baud = 115200) is a 16550A
dw-apb-uart.10: ttyS2 at MMIO 0x80008000 (irq = 6, base_baud = 115200) is a 16550A
dw-apb-uart.11: ttyS3 at MMIO 0x82222000 (irq = 7, base_baud = 115200) is a 16550A
input: SYNA3602:00 0911:5288 Mouse as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:16.2/i2c_designware.2/i2c-3/i2c-SYNA3602:00/0018:0911:5288.0001/input/input1
input: SYNA3602:00 0911:5288 Touchpad as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:16.2/i2c_designware.2/i2c-3/i2c-SYNA3602:00/0018:0911:5288.0001/input/input2
hid-generic 0018:0911:5288.0001: input,hidraw0: I2C HID v1.00 Mouse [SYNA3602:00 0911:5288] on i2c-SYNA3602:00
usb 1-6: new high-speed USB device number 2 using xhci_hcd
usb 1-6: New USB device found, idVendor=0bda, idProduct=0129, bcdDevice=39.60
usb 1-6: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
usb 1-6: Product: USB2.0-CRW
usb 1-6: Manufacturer: Generic
usb 1-6: SerialNumber: 20100201396000000
usbcore: registered new interface driver rtsx_usb
usb 1-7: new full-speed USB device number 3 using xhci_hcd
EXT4-fs (mmcblk1p3): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null)
usb 1-7: New USB device found, idVendor=8087, idProduct=0a2a, bcdDevice= 0.01
usb 1-7: New USB device strings: Mfr=0, Product=0, SerialNumber=0
usb 1-8: new high-speed USB device number 4 using xhci_hcd
systemd[1]: RTC configured in localtime, applying delta of 0 minutes to system time.
systemd[1]: Inserted module 'autofs4'
usb 1-8: New USB device found, idVendor=058f, idProduct=3841, bcdDevice= 0.01
usb 1-8: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=0
usb 1-8: Product: USB 2.0 PC Camera
usb 1-8: Manufacturer: Alcor Micro, Corp.
systemd[1]: systemd 240 running in system mode. (+PAM +AUDIT +SELINUX +IMA +APPARMOR +SMACK +SYSVINIT +UTMP +LIBCRYPTSETUP +GCRYPT +GNUTLS +ACL +XZ +LZ4 +SECCOMP +BLKID +ELFUTILS +KMOD -IDN2 +IDN -PCRE2 default-hierarchy=hybrid)
systemd[1]: Detected architecture x86-64.
systemd[1]: Set hostname to <nc14>.
systemd[1]: Started Dispatch Password Requests to Console Directory Watch.
systemd[1]: Created slice system-getty.slice.
systemd[1]: Listening on udev Kernel Socket.
systemd[1]: Listening on initctl Compatibility Named Pipe.
systemd[1]: Listening on Journal Socket (/dev/log).
systemd[1]: Listening on Syslog Socket.
systemd[1]: Set up automount Arbitrary Executable File Formats File System Automount Point.
EXT4-fs (mmcblk1p3): re-mounted. Opts: errors=remount-ro
random: systemd-random-: uninitialized urandom read (512 bytes read)
systemd-journald[240]: Received request to flush runtime journal from PID 1
input: Intel HID events as /devices/platform/INT33D5:00/input/input3
intel-hid INT33D5:00: platform supports 5 button array
input: Intel HID 5 button array as /devices/platform/INT33D5:00/input/input4
input: Lid Switch as /devices/LNXSYSTM:00/LNXSYBUS:00/PNP0A08:00/device:13/PNP0C09:00/PNP0C0D:00/input/input5
ACPI: Lid Switch [LID0]
input: Power Button as /devices/LNXSYSTM:00/LNXSYBUS:00/PNP0C0C:00/input/input6
ACPI: Power Button [PWRB]
int3403 thermal: probe of INT3403:05 failed with error -22
idma64 idma64.0: Found Intel integrated DMA 64-bit
ACPI: AC Adapter [ADP1] (off-line)
battery: ACPI: Battery Slot [BAT0] (battery present)
idma64 idma64.1: Found Intel integrated DMA 64-bit
Intel(R) Wireless WiFi driver for Linux
Copyright(c) 2003- 2015 Intel Corporation
iwlwifi 0000:01:00.0: enabling device (0000 -> 0002)
checking generic (90000000 7f0000) vs hw (90000000 10000000)
fb: switching to inteldrmfb from EFI VGA
Console: switching to colour dummy device 80x25
[drm] Replacing VGA console driver
[drm] Supports vblank timestamp caching Rev 2 (21.10.2013).
[drm] Driver supports precise vblank timestamp query.
i915 0000:00:02.0: vgaarb: changed VGA decodes: olddecodes=io+mem,decodes=io+mem:owns=io+mem
iwlwifi 0000:01:00.0: firmware: direct-loading firmware iwlwifi-7265D-29.ucode
iwlwifi 0000:01:00.0: loaded firmware version 29.1044073957.0 op_mode iwlmvm
i915 0000:00:02.0: firmware: direct-loading firmware i915/bxt_dmc_ver1_07.bin
[drm] Finished loading DMC firmware i915/bxt_dmc_ver1_07.bin (v1.7)
alg: No test for fips(ansi_cprng) (fips_ansi_cprng)
media: Linux media interface: v0.10
idma64 idma64.2: Found Intel integrated DMA 64-bit
videodev: Linux video capture interface: v2.00
uvcvideo: Found UVC 1.00 device USB 2.0 PC Camera (058f:3841)
uvcvideo 1-8:1.0: Entity type for entity Processing 2 was not initialized!
uvcvideo 1-8:1.0: Entity type for entity Extension 6 was not initialized!
uvcvideo 1-8:1.0: Entity type for entity Camera 1 was not initialized!
input: USB 2.0 PC Camera: PC Camera as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:15.0/usb1/1-8/1-8:1.0/input/input7
usbcore: registered new interface driver uvcvideo
USB Video Class driver (1.1.1)
usbcore: registered new interface driver snd-usb-audio
idma64 idma64.3: Found Intel integrated DMA 64-bit
iwlwifi 0000:01:00.0: Detected Intel(R) Dual Band Wireless AC 3165, REV=0x210
input: SYNA3602:00 0911:5288 Touchpad as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:16.2/i2c_designware.2/i2c-3/i2c-SYNA3602:00/0018:0911:5288.0001/input/input9
hid-multitouch 0018:0911:5288.0001: input,hidraw0: I2C HID v1.00 Mouse [SYNA3602:00 0911:5288] on i2c-SYNA3602:00
Bluetooth: Core ver 2.22
NET: Registered protocol family 31
Bluetooth: HCI device and connection manager initialized
Bluetooth: HCI socket layer initialized
Bluetooth: L2CAP socket layer initialized
Bluetooth: SCO socket layer initialized
iwlwifi 0000:01:00.0: base HW address: b8:08:cf:fd:fd:d6
usbcore: registered new interface driver btusb
Bluetooth: hci0: read Intel version: 370810011003110e00
bluetooth hci0: firmware: direct-loading firmware intel/ibt-hw-37.8.10-fw-1.10.3.11.e.bseq
Bluetooth: hci0: Intel Bluetooth firmware file: intel/ibt-hw-37.8.10-fw-1.10.3.11.e.bseq
[drm] Initialized i915 1.6.0 20180719 for 0000:00:02.0 on minor 0
ACPI: Video Device [GFX0] (multi-head: yes  rom: no  post: no)
input: Video Bus as /devices/LNXSYSTM:00/LNXSYBUS:00/PNP0A08:00/LNXVIDEO:00/input/input10
snd_hda_intel 0000:00:0e.0: bound 0000:00:02.0 (ops i915_audio_component_bind_ops [i915])
EFI Variables Facility v0.08 2004-May-17
fbcon: inteldrmfb (fb0) is primary device
idma64 idma64.4: Found Intel integrated DMA 64-bit
input: PC Speaker as /devices/platform/pcspkr/input/input11
random: crng init done
ieee80211 phy0: Selected rate control algorithm 'iwl-mvm-rs'
thermal thermal_zone3: failed to read out thermal zone (-61)
pstore: Registered efi as persistent store backend
RAPL PMU: API unit is 2^-32 Joules, 4 fixed counters, 655360 ms ovfl timer
RAPL PMU: hw unit of domain pp0-core 2^-14 Joules
RAPL PMU: hw unit of domain package 2^-14 Joules
RAPL PMU: hw unit of domain dram 2^-14 Joules
RAPL PMU: hw unit of domain pp1-gpu 2^-14 Joules
snd_hda_codec_realtek hdaudioC0D0: autoconfig for ALC269VC: line_outs=1 (0x14/0x0/0x0/0x0/0x0) type:speaker
snd_hda_codec_realtek hdaudioC0D0:    speaker_outs=0 (0x0/0x0/0x0/0x0/0x0)
snd_hda_codec_realtek hdaudioC0D0:    hp_outs=1 (0x15/0x0/0x0/0x0/0x0)
snd_hda_codec_realtek hdaudioC0D0:    mono: mono_out=0x0
snd_hda_codec_realtek hdaudioC0D0:    inputs:
snd_hda_codec_realtek hdaudioC0D0:      Mic=0x18
snd_hda_codec_realtek hdaudioC0D0:      Internal Mic=0x12
idma64 idma64.5: Found Intel integrated DMA 64-bit
input: HDA Intel PCH Mic as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:0e.0/sound/card0/input12
input: HDA Intel PCH Headphone as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:0e.0/sound/card0/input13
input: HDA Intel PCH HDMI/DP,pcm=3 as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:0e.0/sound/card0/input14
input: HDA Intel PCH HDMI/DP,pcm=7 as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:0e.0/sound/card0/input15
input: HDA Intel PCH HDMI/DP,pcm=8 as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:0e.0/sound/card0/input16
input: HDA Intel PCH HDMI/DP,pcm=9 as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:0e.0/sound/card0/input17
input: HDA Intel PCH HDMI/DP,pcm=10 as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:0e.0/sound/card0/input18
idma64 idma64.6: Found Intel integrated DMA 64-bit
EDAC pnd2: b_cr_tolud_pci=080000001 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: b_cr_touud_lo_pci=080000000 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: b_cr_touud_hi_pci=000000001 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: b_cr_asym_mem_region0_mchbar=000000000 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: b_cr_asym_mem_region1_mchbar=000000000 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: b_cr_mot_out_base_mchbar=000000000 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: b_cr_mot_out_mask_mchbar=000000000 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: b_cr_slice_channel_hash=80000dbc00000244 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: b_cr_asym_2way_mem_region_mchbar=000000000 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: d_cr_drp0=01048c023 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: d_cr_drp0=01048c023 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: d_cr_drp0=01048c023 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: d_cr_drp0=01048c023 ret=0
EDAC pnd2: Unsupported DIMM in channel 0
EDAC pnd2: Unsupported DIMM in channel 1
EDAC pnd2: Unsupported DIMM in channel 2
EDAC pnd2: Unsupported DIMM in channel 3
EDAC pnd2: Failed to register device with error -22.
Bluetooth: hci0: Intel firmware patch completed and activated
intel_rapl: Found RAPL domain package
intel_rapl: Found RAPL domain core
intel_rapl: Found RAPL domain uncore
intel_rapl: Found RAPL domain dram
idma64 idma64.7: Found Intel integrated DMA 64-bit
idma64 idma64.9: Found Intel integrated DMA 64-bit
idma64 idma64.12: Found Intel integrated DMA 64-bit
idma64 idma64.13: Found Intel integrated DMA 64-bit
Bluetooth: BNEP (Ethernet Emulation) ver 1.3
Bluetooth: BNEP filters: protocol multicast
Bluetooth: BNEP socket layer initialized
idma64 idma64.14: Found Intel integrated DMA 64-bit
NET: Registered protocol family 3
NET: Registered protocol family 5
Console: switching to colour frame buffer device 240x67
i915 0000:00:02.0: fb0: inteldrmfb frame buffer device
fuse init (API version 7.27)
lscpu
Architecture:        x86_64
CPU op-mode(s):      32-bit, 64-bit
Byte Order:          Little Endian
Address sizes:       39 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
CPU(s):              2
On-line CPU(s) list: 0,1
Thread(s) per core:  1
Core(s) per socket:  2
Socket(s):           1
NUMA node(s):        1
Vendor ID:           GenuineIntel
CPU family:          6
Model:               92
Model name:          Intel(R) Celeron(R) CPU N3350 @ 1.10GHz
Stepping:            9
CPU MHz:             987.647
CPU max MHz:         2400.0000
CPU min MHz:         800.0000
BogoMIPS:            2188.80
Virtualization:      VT-x
L1d cache:           24K
L1i cache:           32K
L2 cache:            1024K
NUMA node0 CPU(s):   0,1
Flags:               fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc art arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good nopl xtopology tsc_reliable nonstop_tsc cpuid aperfmperf tsc_known_freq pni pclmulqdq dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx est tm2 ssse3 sdbg cx16 xtpr pdcm sse4_1 sse4_2 x2apic movbe popcnt tsc_deadline_timer aes xsave rdrand lahf_lm 3dnowprefetch cpuid_fault cat_l2 pti tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority ept vpid ept_ad fsgsbase tsc_adjust smep erms mpx rdt_a rdseed smap clflushopt intel_pt sha_ni xsaveopt xsavec xgetbv1 xsaves dtherm ida arat pln pts
lspci
00:00.0 Host bridge [0600]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series Host Bridge [8086:5af0] (rev 0b)
00:00.1 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Device [8086:5a8c] (rev 0b)
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller [0300]: Intel Corporation Device [8086:5a85] (rev 0b)
00:0e.0 Audio device [0403]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series Audio Cluster [8086:5a98] (rev 0b)
00:0f.0 Communication controller [0780]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series Trusted Execution Engine [8086:5a9a] (rev 0b)
00:12.0 SATA controller [0106]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series SATA AHCI Controller [8086:5ae3] (rev 0b)
00:14.0 PCI bridge [0604]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series PCI Express Port B #2 [8086:5ad7] (rev fb)
00:15.0 USB controller [0c03]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series USB xHCI [8086:5aa8] (rev 0b)
00:16.0 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series I2C Controller #1 [8086:5aac] (rev 0b)
00:16.1 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series I2C Controller #2 [8086:5aae] (rev 0b)
00:16.2 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series I2C Controller #3 [8086:5ab0] (rev 0b)
00:16.3 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series I2C Controller #4 [8086:5ab2] (rev 0b)
00:17.0 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series I2C Controller #5 [8086:5ab4] (rev 0b)
00:17.1 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series I2C Controller #6 [8086:5ab6] (rev 0b)
00:17.2 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series I2C Controller #7 [8086:5ab8] (rev 0b)
00:17.3 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series I2C Controller #8 [8086:5aba] (rev 0b)
00:18.0 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series HSUART Controller #1 [8086:5abc] (rev 0b)
00:18.1 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series HSUART Controller #2 [8086:5abe] (rev 0b)
00:18.2 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series HSUART Controller #3 [8086:5ac0] (rev 0b)
00:18.3 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series HSUART Controller #4 [8086:5aee] (rev 0b)
00:19.0 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series SPI Controller #1 [8086:5ac2] (rev 0b)
00:19.1 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series SPI Controller #2 [8086:5ac4] (rev 0b)
00:19.2 Signal processing controller [1180]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series SPI Controller #3 [8086:5ac6] (rev 0b)
00:1b.0 SD Host controller [0805]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series SDXC/MMC Host Controller [8086:5aca] (rev 0b)
00:1c.0 SD Host controller [0805]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series eMMC Controller [8086:5acc] (rev 0b)
00:1e.0 SD Host controller [0805]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series SDIO Controller [8086:5ad0] (rev 0b)
00:1f.0 ISA bridge [0601]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series Low Pin Count Interface [8086:5ae8] (rev 0b)
00:1f.1 SMBus [0c05]: Intel Corporation Atom/Celeron/Pentium Processor N4200/N3350/E3900 Series SMBus Controller [8086:5ad4] (rev 0b)
01:00.0 Network controller [0280]: Intel Corporation Wireless 3165 [8086:3165] (rev 79)
lsusb
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 004: ID 058f:3841 Alcor Micro Corp.
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 8087:0a2a Intel Corp.
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 0bda:0129 Realtek Semiconductor Corp. RTS5129 Card Reader Controller
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

February 12, 2019 09:27 PM

January 31, 2019

Jonathan McDowell

IoT Security, DRM and user freedom

IoT security is a hot topic these days, and rightly so. Matthew Garrett has spent a lot of time reverse engineering various IoT light bulbs to determine how secure they are, with depressing results. So when I saw Bruce Schneier’s recent post Security Analysis of the LIFX Smart Light Bulb which started with “it’s terrible” I thought this was more of the same. Except it’s not. The original article is Pwn the LIFX Mini white (and the author has at least a couple of other device teardowns in the same vein).

What these articles are concerned with is not the usual protocol level security which Matthew investigates. Instead they’re about physical device security. In particular the points raised are:

All of these boil down to the same root cause; without effective DRM there is no way to protect devices from physical attacks. That can be as simple as having only internal flash and being able to blow a set of EFUSEs to prevent readout/debug interfaces functioning, or it can be a full built in boot ROM with cryptographic verification of an image pulled in from external flash (potentially encrypted) and the building up of a chain of trust. I see 2 main problems with this.

Firstly, getting security like this right is hard. Games console manufacturers are constantly trying to protect their devices against unauthorised code running, and while they seem to be getting better it’s taken quite a number of mistakes to get there. They have a much bigger financial imperative to get this right, as console DRM attacks are frequently used for piracy. An IoT vendor could end up adding significant cost to their BoM if they have to buy a more advanced chip to be able to do the appropriate end-to-end flash encryption required. (The LIFX is using the ESP32, which does have some of these features that are not present in the more basic (and cheaper) ESP8266. I’ve no idea if anyone has done a full analysis of the ESP32 security.)

Secondly, locking devices down in this way has a big impact on user freedom. It should come as no surprise that this is my primary concern, as I believe it is detrimental to the end user in multiple ways.

There are ways to enable user freedom while still having a locked down setup by default, but they’re hard to do in the embedded IoT space (generally no hardware infrastructure that allows plugging in a USB stick with a new root certificate on it and enrolling it like EFI Secure Boot), and add significant cost and complexity to devices that are meant to be cheap and ubiquitous. I see the validity in raising concerns about discarded devices leaking Wi-Fi credentials, but it’s something any device you connect to your Wi-Fi is potentially going to do. That means your laptop, your phone and all the random other devices you allow to connect to your Wi-Fi. It’s something we need to be aware of generally, rather than singling some cheap IoT light bulbs out.

The lack of physical security for the firmware image or device credentials is not so worrying to me. A surveillance device in a light bulb is not a new concept; in fact the added complexity of an IoT bulb makes it easier to justify the complex circuitry being present. If it requires physical access to be able to subvert the device like this that’s significantly less worrying than being able to do so remotely.

Don’t get me wrong, I love a good device teardown, and I think there’s an interesting discussion that’s already underway about how to improve physical device security without restricting user freedom. I just don’t think this is the major failure that some commenters are suggesting.

January 31, 2019 06:39 PM

January 24, 2019

Mick Morgan

postfix sender restrictions

I mentioned in my previous post that I had recently received one of those scam emails designed to make the recipient think that their account has been compromised in some way and that, furthermore, that compromise has led to malware being installed which has spied on the user’s supposed porn habits. The email then attempts a classic extortion along the lines, “send us money or we let all your friends and contacts see what you have been up to.”

In the scam as described by El Reg, the sender tries to lend credence to the email by including the recipient’s password. As the Reg points out, this password is likely to have been harvested from a web site used in the past by the poor unsuspecting recipient. In my case, the sender didn’t include any password, but they did send the email to me from the email address targetted (so they sent email to “mick@domain” with sender “mick@domain”). Needless to say, I thought that this should not have been possible (except in the unlikely scenario that the extortionist actually had compromised my mail server). After all, my mail server refuses to relay from addresses other than my own networks, and all mail sent from my server must come from an authenticated user (using SASL authentication). My postfix sender restrictions looked like this:

# sender relaying restrictions – authenticated users can send to anywhere

smtpd_sender_restrictions = permit_sasl_authenticated, permit_mynetworks, reject_non_fqdn_sender, permit

That says that locally authenticated users can send mail anywhere, but we should reject the sending request when the MAIL FROM address specifies a domain that is not in fully-qualified domain form as is required by the RFC. This stops outsiders trying to send mail to us from non-existent or badly forged from addresses. The final permit allows checking to proceed to the next steps (the relay and recipient restrictions).

So what was going on?

Well, there was nothing in my restrictions to say that an outsider could not send to a local user (i.e. an email recipient on one of my domains). After all, that is part of the function of my mail system – it must accept (valid) email from the outside world aimed at my local users. But therein lay the problem. My mail connection checks (along with the “smtpd_helo”, “smtpd_relay” and “smtpd_recipient” restrictions enforced outbound checks and limited mail sending to outside domains from locally authenticated users, but inbound checks assumed (incorrectly as it turns out) that the sender domain was external to me (i.e. FROM someone@external.domain TO someone@internal.domain). Crucially I had ommitted to enforce any rule stopping someone sending FROM someone@internal.domain TO someone@internal.domain). On reflection that was dumb – and the “extortionist” had taken advantage of that mistake to try to fool me.

Fixing this is actually quite easy. Postfix allows the smtpd_sender_restrictions to include a variety of checks, one of which is “check_sender_access”. This enforces checks against a database of MAIL FROM address, domains, parent domains, or localpart@ specifying actions to take in each case. The database table contains three fields – domain-to-check, action-to-take, optional-message.

So I created a database of local domains called /postfix/localdomains thus:

first.local.domain REJECT Oh no you don’t. You’re not local!
second.local.domain REJECT Oh no you don’t. You’re not local!
third.local.domain REJECT Oh no you don’t. You’re not local!
etc

(I was tempted to add a rude message, but thought better of it…..)

Postfix supports a variety of different table types. You can find out which your system supports with the command “postconf -m”. I chose “hash” for my table. The local database file is created from the text table with the command “postmap /etc/postfix/localdomains”. Having done that I added the check to my sender_restrictions thus:

smtpd_sender_restrictions = permit_sasl_authenticated, permit_mynetworks, reject_non_fqdn_sender, check_sender_access hash:/etc/postfix/localdomains, permit

and reloaded postfix. Job done.

by Mick at January 24, 2019 02:45 PM

January 23, 2019

Mick Morgan

congratulations to BT

I have been running my own mail server now for well over a decade. Whilst the actual physical hardware (or actually VPS system) may have changed once or twice during that time, the underlying software (postfix and dovecot on debian) has not really changed all that much. However, what has changed over the last decade or so, is the expectation that mail systems will be much more robust, better managed, less insecure (no more “open relays”) and harder on spam than had been the case in the early days of wide takeup of email by the public. Ignoring the “free” offerings from the likes of google, microsoft and others, it would arguably be cheaper, and certainly easier, for me to simply pay for an external mail service by one of the many providers out there. It is pretty easy to find companies offering to host personal email for about a tenner or at most twenty pounds a year. Those “solutions” (as providers seem to love to call their products) usually give you decent anti-spam, A/V scanning, POP3S/IMAPS connectivity (or if you really must, a webmail interface) and can usually alias mail to your preferred domain – particularly if you buy a domain name with your email service. But they always have limitations that I don’t like. The most obvious ones are: restrictions on the number of actual email addresses (as opposed to aliases), limited storage (though that is becoming less of a problem these days), and artificial restrictions on attachment sizes. And I’m bloody minded. I like to control my own email. I run my own email service for the same reason I manage my own DNS, run my own webservers, manage my own wordpress installation, run my own XMPP server and VPNs and manage my own domestic local network with assorted servers hanging off it. I like control and I dislike the opportunity outsourced services have for providing third parties access to my data. My personal data.

Besides, a boy needs a hobby.

However, I do occasionally get one or two problems in mail delivery – though usually /to/ my system rather than /from/ my system. For example I still get the occasional spam or cruddy email which gets past my protection mechanisms. Indeed I recently received one of those ridiculous extortion scam emails purporting to come from my own email adddress – more of which later – but this post is about an outbound mail failure from me to a friend of mine with a btinternet.com account.

I routinely correspond by email with a bunch of long standing friends who once lived relatively close together but are now more widely geographically dispersed. The group (or sub groups in some cases) get together on occasion for holidays, outings and meals. For some odd reason, many of those friends of mine have AOL accounts (I know, I know, but try telling them that). In a list of about two dozen regular correspondents, about a quarter of those people use AOL. The majority of the rest use BT, hotmail and gmail with one or two minor providers or work based accounts. On occasion in the past I have had mail to those AOL based accounts refused by AOL on the spurious grounds that my mail looked like spam because it was aimed at about half a dozen separate AOL accounts all at once. Well, that’s what happens when you “reply-all” to a mail list. Sadly AOL never could figure this out. After a while I gave up emailing their postmaster explaining the problem (and it was /their/ problem, identical email to the individual accounts always got through) because I never, ever, received a reply.

But this is about BT, not AOL.

Members of the mail list are shortly to meet for the group’s annual Christmas meal (it is always late, but hey) and one member “volunteered” to arrange the gathering, find a venue, sort menus etc. Said member has a btinternet email account (@btinternet.com) and he circulated a menu seeking choices for the meal. My reply was refused by BT with a “hard” 554 message which was reported to me by my mail system as below:

The mail system

forename.surname@btinternet.com: host mx.bt.lon5.cpcloud.co.uk[65.20.0.49] said:
554 Message rejected on 2019/01/15 15:00:24 GMT, policy (3.2.2.1) – Your
message looks like SPAM or has been reported as SPAM please read
www.bt.com/bulksender (in reply to end of DATA command)

Now this was decidedly odd, because not 10 days beforehand I had happily sent earlier mails to the same address when our volunteer was initially talking about venue and proposed dates for the gathering. Just to be certain I wasn’t at fault, I checked the advice given by BT on their mail site referred to by the bounce message. Now the only thing I do not have set up for my mail server is DKIM signing. Everything else is hunky-dory – Proper “From” address? check. SPF? check. Proper MX records? check. Fixed IP address? check. PTR record? check. Good reputation? check. Not blacklisted? check (mxtoolbox says I’m fine). Furthermore, I never send HTML email (which I abhor as an abominable bastardisation of proper email standards) so did not have any embedded images or other bloody silly links in my mail). So after trying once or twice more later in the day (and failing) I emailed the BT postmaster saying I was having a problem and pointing out that whilst I might not use Domain keys, there seemed to me to be little else wrong with my email. I didn’t expect an answer, but you have to try,

BT responded – and they responded quickly. I sent my notification, with the failure message, to the BT postmaster address timed at 17.16. At 17.23 I received a reply saying:

“Hi,
Can you please send an example of the failing email to [investigation-address]@btinternet.com.
Please do not forward the email as an attachment but resend it.
Please let “postmaster” know when this has been sent so we can check the email’s content and possible reason for thinking it is spam.

Thank You,”

Slightly stunned, I did as requested and a short time later (at half past midnight when I was asleep) I received another email from BT saying:

“Hi,
That email is scoring high as spam so I have reported it to our spam engine provider, I will email you again when I have some news.
Thank you,”

Sure enough, that same morning at 02.50, I received the following good news:

“Hello,

We have made a change that should stop the emails being scored as spam, this change is being rolled-out now so please try again later.

Thanks”

On reading this when I got up that day I resent my email and, sure enough, it got through. Way to go BT! I have never, ever received that kind of rapid response from any ISP anywhere in the world – and I quite often email “abuse@” network addresses when some toerag or particularly persistent ‘bot shows up in my logs trying to do things I don’t like.

However, as much as I would like to believe that BT fixed a problem simply to accomodate my mail system, I actually think that unlikely. Given that mail from my system to @btinternet.com addresses had been working fine up until a few days ago, I think it much more likely that BT mail administrators had made some recent change, perhaps in one of their spam filters, which caused sigificant volumes of inbound mail to be rejected. My email had then simply been caught up in that wider problem and they were receiving queries or complaints from other mail administrators and not just me. Be that as it may, they still responded correctly, and efficiently as they moved to rectify whatever was causing the problem. So, my congratulations, and heartfelt thanks to the BT postmaster team for actually doing the sort of job that postmasters are supposed to, but rarely do properly.

by Mick at January 23, 2019 04:14 PM

January 16, 2019

Daniel Silverstone (Kinnison)

Plans for 2019

At the end of last year I made eight statements about what I wanted to do throughout 2019. I tried to split them semi-evenly between being a better adult human and being a better software community contributor. I have had a few weeks now to settle my thoughts around what they mean and I'd like to take some time to go through the eight and discuss them a little more.

I've been told that doing this reduces the chance of me sticking to the points because simply announcing the points and receiving any kind of positive feedback may stunt my desire to actually achieve the goals. I'm not sure about that though, and I really want my wider friends community to help keep me honest about them all. I've set a reminder for April 7th to review the situation and hopefully be able to report back positively on my progress.


My list of goals was stated in a pair of tweets:

  1. Continue to lose weight and get fit. I'd like to reach 80kg during the year if I can
  2. Begin a couch to 5k and give it my very best
  3. Focus my software work on finishing projects I have already started
  4. Where I join in other projects be a net benefit
  5. Give back to the @rustlang community because I've gained so much from them already
  6. Be better at tidying up
  7. Save up lots of money for renovations
  8. Go on a proper holiday

Weight and fitness

Some of you may be aware already, others may not, that I have been making an effort to shed some of my excess weight over the past six or seven months. I "started" in May of 2018 weighing approximately 141kg and I am, as of this morning, weighing approximately 101kg. Essentially that's a semi-steady rate of 5kg per month, though it has, obviously, been slowing down of late.

In theory, given my height of roughly 178cm I should aim for a weight of around 70kg. I am trying to improve my fitness and to build some muscle and as such I'm aiming long-term for roughly 75kg. My goal for this year is to continue my improvement and to reach and maintain 80kg or better. I think this will make a significant difference to my health and my general wellbeing. I'm already sleeping better on average, and I feel like I have more energy over all. I bought a Garmin Vivoactive 3 and have been using that to track my general health and activity. My resting heart rate has gone down a few BPM over the past six months, and I can see my general improvement in sleep etc over that time too. I bought a Garmin Index Scale to track my weight and body composition, and that is also showing me good values as well as encouraging me to weigh myself every day and to learn how to interpret the results.

I've been managing my weight loss partly by means of a 16:8 intermittent fasting protocol, combined with a steady calorie deficit of around 1000kcal/day. While this sounds pretty drastic, I was horrendously overweight and this was critical to getting my weight to shift quickly. I expect I'll reduce that deficit over the course of the year, hence I'm only aiming for a 20kg drop over a year rather than trying to maintain what could in theory be a drop of 30kg or more.

In addition to the IF/deficit, I have been more active. I bought an e-bike and slowly got going on that over the summer, along with learning to enjoy walks around my local parks and scrubland. Since the weather got bad enough that I didn't want to be out of doors I joined a gym where I have been going regularly since September. Since the end of October I have been doing a very basic strength training routine and my shoulders do seem to be improving for it. I can still barely do a pushup but it's less embarassingly awful than it was.

Given my efforts toward my fitness, my intention this year is to extend that to include a Couch to 5k type effort. Amusingly, Garmin offer a self adjusting "coach" called Garmin Coach which I will likely use to guide me through the process. While I'm not committing to any, maybe I'll get involved in some parkruns this year too. I'm not committing to reach an ability to run 5k because, quite simply, my bad leg may not let me, but I am committing to give it my best. My promise to myself was to start some level of jogging once I hit 100kg, so that's looking likely by the end of this month. Maybe February is when I'll start the c25k stuff in earnest.

Adulting

I have put three items down in this category to get better at this year. One is a big thing for our house. I am, quite simply put, awful at tidying up. I leave all sorts of things lying around and I am messy and lazy. I need to fix this. My short-term goal in this respect is to pick one room of the house where the mess is mostly mine, and learn to keep it tidy before my checkpoint in April. I think I'm likely to choose the Study because it's where others of my activities for this year will centre and it's definitely almost entirely my mess in there. I'm not yet certain how I'll learn to do this, but it has been a long time coming and I really do need to. It's not fair to my husband for me to be this awful all the time.

The second of these points is to explicitly save money for renovations. Last year we had a new bathroom installed and I've been seriously happy about that. We will need to pay that off this year (we have the money, we're just waiting as long as we can to earn the best interest on it first) and then I'll want to be saving up for another spot of renovations. I'd like to have the kitchen and dining room done - new floor, new units and sink in the kitchen, fix up the messy wall in the dining room, have them decorated, etc. I imagine this will take quite a bit of 2019 to save for, but hopefully this time next year I'll be saying that we managed that and it's time for the next part of the house.

Finally I want to take a proper holiday this year. It has been a couple of years since Rob and I went to Seoul for a month, and while that was excellent, it was partly "work from home" and so I'd like to take a holiday which isn't also a conference, or working from home, or anything other than relaxation and seeing of interesting things. This will also require saving for, so I imagine we won't get to do it until mid to late 2019, but I feel like this is part of a general effort I've been making to take care of myself more. The fitness stuff above being physical, but a proper holiday being part of taking better care of my mental health.

Software, Hardware, and all the squishy humans in between

2018 was not a great year for me in terms of getting projects done. I have failed to do almost anything with Gitano and I did not doing well with Debian or other projects I am part of. As such, I'm committing to do better by my projects in 2019.

First, and foremost, I'm pledging to focus my efforts on finishing projects which I've already started. I am very good at thinking "Oh, that sounds fun" and starting something new, leaving old projects by the wayside and not getting them to any state of completion. While software is never entirely "done", I do feel like I should get in-progress projects to a point that others can use them and maybe contribute too.

As such, I'll be making an effort to sort out issues which others have raised in Gitano (though I doubt I'll do much more feature development for it) so that it can be used by NetSurf and so that it doesn't drop out of Debian. Since the next release of Debian is due soon, I will have to pull my finger out and get this done pretty soon.

I have been working, on and off, with Rob on a new point-of-sale for our local pub Ye Olde Vic and I am committing to get it done to a point that we can experiment with using it in the pub by the summer. Also I was working on a way to measure fluid flow through a pipe so that we can correlate the pulled beer with the sales and determine wastage etc. I expect I'll get back to the "beer'o'meter" once the point-of-sale work is in place and usable. I am not going to commit to getting it done this year, but I'd like to make a dent in the remaining work for it.

I have an on-again off-again relationship with some code I wrote quite a while ago when learning Rust. I am speaking of my Yarn implementation called (imaginatively) rsyarn. I'd like to have that project reworked into something which can be used with Cargo and associated tooling nicely so that running cargo test in a Rust project can result in running yarns as well.

There may be other projects which jump into this category over the year, but those listed above are the ones I'm committing to make a difference to my previous lackadaisical approach.

On a more community-minded note, one of my goals is to ensure that I'm always a net benefit to any project I join or work on in 2019. I am very aware that in a lot of cases, I provide short drive-by contributions to projects which can end up costing that project more than I gave them in benefit. I want to stop that behaviour and instead invest more effort into fewer projects so that I always end up a net benefit to the project in question. This may mean spending longer to ensure that an issue I file has enough in it that I may not need to interact with it again until verification of a correct fix is required. It may mean spending time fixing someone elses' issues so that there is the engineering bandwidth for someone else to fix mine. I can't say for sure how this will manifest, beyond being up-front and requesting of any community I decide to take part in, that they tell me if I end up costing more than I'm bringing in benefit.

Rust and the Rust community

I've mentioned Rust above, and this is perhaps the most overlappy of my promises for 2019. I want to give back to the Rust community because over the past few years as I've learned Rust and learned more and more about the community, I've seen how much of a positive effect they've had on my life. Not just because they made learning a new programming langauge so enjoyable, but because of the community's focus on programmers as human beings. The fantastic documentation ethics, and the wonderfully inclusive atmosphere in the community meant that I managed to get going with Rust so much more effectively than with almost any other language I've ever tried to learn since Lua.

I have, since Christmas, been slowly involving myself in the Rust community more and more. I joined one of the various Discord servers and have been learning about how crates.io is managed and I have been contributing to rustup.rs which is the initial software interface most Rust users encounter and forms such an integral part of the experience of the ecosystem that I feel it's somewhere I can make a useful impact.

While I can't say a significant amount more right now, I hope I'll be able to blog more in the future on what I'm up to in the Rust community and how I hope that will benefit others already in, and interested in joining, the fun that is programming in Rust.


In summary, I hope at least some of you will help to keep me honest about my intentions for 2019, and if, in return, I can help you too, please feel free to let me know.

by Daniel Silverstone at January 16, 2019 11:29 AM

November 08, 2018

Steve Engledow (stilvoid)

git-get

Because I work on a lot of different projects spread across a lot of accounts at multiple git hosting providers, I try to keep my code folder in some semblance of order by having subfolders for things.

A while ago, I decided to make things even simpler by letting the git repos I was cloning dictate where they should live. I took inspiration from the way go expects you to organise your code.

Today, I decided to apply the three virtues and wrote some code to handle this for me.

Introducing git-get

git-get is an opinionated git command that helps you keep your code folder in order.

You use git-get as a replacement for git clone and it will decide where your code should live :)

git get https://github.com/stilvoid/git-get
Cloning into '/home/steve/code/github.com/stilvoid/git-get'...

Laziness is the primary virtue.

by Steve Engledow at November 08, 2018 12:00 AM

August 14, 2018

Steve Engledow (stilvoid)

Heroes: Building some old code

For the end result of this post, see my AUR package of Heroes.


The other day, something reminded me of a game I used to really enjoy playing back in my early days of getting to know Linux. That game was Heroes. It’s a clone of Snake/Tron/Nibbles but with some fun additions, a nice graphical style, and some funky visual effects.

Heroes screenshot

So, of course, I immediately decided to install it.

$ pacman -Ss heroes

No results. Nothing in the AUR either. There is only one other course of action: I’m going to create an AUR package for it!

It looks like the last change to the game was 16 years ago so it could be fun getting it to compile with a modern toolchain.

Getting Heroes to compile in 2018

I put together a basic PKGBUILD that pulls down the source and data files from the Heroes sourceforge page and then runs:

./configure
make

Here’s the first of what I’m sure are many failure messages:

hedlite.c:48:20: error: static declaration of ‘tile_set_img’ follows non-static declaration 
 static a_pcx_image tile_set_img;
                    ^~~~~~~~~~~~
In file included from hedlite.c:44:
const.h:52:20: note: previous declaration of ‘tile_set_img’ was here                        
 extern a_pcx_image tile_set_img, font_deck_img;                                            
                    ^~~~~~~~~~~~

Some forewarning: it’s been quite some time since I wrote anything serious in C and I was never an expert in it anyway. But I think I know enough to fix this and so just commented out the static declaration as, after poking around in the code a bit, it doesn’t seem like it’s necessary anyway.

Now the compilation succeeds but I get the following error during linking:

/usr/bin/ld: camera.o: undefined reference to symbol 'sin@@GLIBC_2.2.5'
/usr/bin/ld: /usr/lib/libm.so.6: error adding symbols: DSO missing from command line

Turns out that for some reason, the developers forgot to include the math(s) library. I’m guessing that perhaps it used to be linked by default in a previous version of GCC.

LDFLAGS=-lm ./configure
make

Now it at least compiles correctly! Next up, compiling the data, music, and sound effects packages.

Amazingly, those all worked correctly and I was able to play the game!

However, this game was written a while ago and originally targeted MS-DOS so it has a window size of 320x200 which looks rather ridiculous on my 1920x1080 desktop ;)

Tiny Heroes window screenshot

So I set about trying to set the default screen mode so that the game starts in full screen…

Fortunately, it looks like this is relatively easy. I just modified a few variables and changed a command line flag from -F | --full-screen to -W | --windowed.

Next up, rather than rely on SDL’s built-in scaling (it looks blurry and weird), I need to enable Heroes’ quadruple flag -4 by default. In fact, I removed all the scaling options and just left it to default to scaling 4-fold as that leaves the game with a resolution of 1280x800 which seems a reasonable default these days. I’m sure I’ll receive bug reports if it’s not ;)

The very last thing I’ve done is to enable the high quality mixer by default and remove the command line option from the game. CPU is a little more abundant now than it was in 2002 ;)

Here’s my final patch file.

Submitting the AUR package

Things have changed since I last submitted a package to the AUR so here’s a brief writeup - if only to remind myself in future ;)

First step was to update the SSH key in my AUR account as it contained a key from my old machine.

Next up, I added a remote to my repository:

$ git remote add aur ssh://aur@aur.archlinux.org/heroes.git
$ git fetch aur  # This step causes AUR to create a record for the package

The next step is to generate AUR’s .SRCINFO file and rebase it into every commit (AUR requires this).

$ git filter-branch --tree-filter "makepkg --printsrcinfo > .SRCINFO"

And then push it to the AUR repository:

$ git push -u aur master

Testing it out

I use packer to make using AUR easier (I’m lazy).

$ packer -S heroes

SUCCESS!

All in all, this wasn’t anywhere near as painful as I’d expected. Time to play some Heroes :D

by Steve Engledow at August 14, 2018 12:00 AM

July 03, 2018

Daniel Silverstone (Kinnison)

Docker Compose

I glanced back over my shoulder to see the Director approaching. Zhe stood next to me, watched me intently for a few moments, before turning and looking out at the scape. The water was preturnaturally calm, above it only clear blue. A number of dark, almost formless, shapes were slowly moving back and forth beneath the surface.

"Is everything in readiness?" zhe queried, sounding both impatient and resigned at the same time. "And will it work?" zhe added. My predecessor, and zir predecessor before zem, had attempted to reach the same goal now set for myself.

"I believe so" I responded, sounding perhaps slightly more confident than I felt. "All the preparations have been made, everything is in accordance with what has been written". The director nodded, zir face pinched, with worry writ across it.

I closed my eyes, took a deep breath, opened them, raised my hand and focussed on the scape, until it seemed to me that my hand was almost floating on the water. With all of my strength of will I formed the incantation, repeating it over and over in my mind until I was sure that I was ready. I released it into the scape and dropped my arm.

The water began to churn, the blue above darkening rapidly, becoming streaked with grey. The shapes beneath the water picked up speed and started to grow, before resolving to what appeared to be stylised Earth whales. Huge arcs of electricity speared the water, a screaming, crashing, wall of sound rolled over us as we watched, a foundation rose up from the depths on the backs of the whale-like shapes wherever the lightning struck.

Chunks of goodness-knows-what rained down from the grey streaked morass, thumping into place seamlessly onto the foundations, slowly building what I had envisioned. I started to allow myself to feel hope, things were going well, each tower of the final solution was taking form, becoming the slick and clean visions of function which I had painstakingly selected from among the masses of clamoring options.

Now and then, the whale-like shapes would surface momentarily near one of the towers, stringing connections like bunting across the water, until the final design was achieved. My shoulders tightened and I raised my hand once more. As I did so, the waters settled, the grey bled out from the blue, and the scape became calm and the towers shone, each in its place, each looking exactly as it should.

Chanting the second incantation under my breath, over and over, until it seemed seared into my very bones, I released it into the scape and watched it flow over the towers, each one ringing out as the command reached it, until all the towers sang, producing a resonant and consonant chord which rose of its own accord, seeming to summon creatures from the very waters in which the towers stood.

The creatures approached the towers, reached up as one, touched the doors, and screamed in horror as their arms caught aflame. In moments each and every creature was reduced to ashes, somehow fundamentally unable to make use of the incredible forms I had wrought. The Director sighed heavily, turned, and made to leave. The towers I had sweated over the design of for months stood proud, beautiful, worthless.

I also turned, made my way out of the realisation suite, and with a sigh hit the scape-purge button on the outer wall. It was over. The grand design was flawed. Nothing I created in this manner would be likely to work in the scape and so the most important moment of my life was lost to ruin, just as my predecessor, and zir predecessor before zem.

Returning to my chambers, I snatched up the book from my workbench. The whale-like creature winking to me from the cover, grinning, as though it knew what I had tried to do and relished my failure. I cast it into the waste chute and went back to my drafting table to design new towers, towers which might be compatible with the creatures which were needed to inhabit them and breath life into their very structure, towers which would involve no grinning whales.

by Daniel Silverstone at July 03, 2018 03:13 PM

June 07, 2018

Brett Parker (iDunno)

The Psion Gemini

So, I backed the Gemini and received my shiny new device just a few months after they said that it'd ship, not bad for an indiegogo project! Out of the box, I flashed it, using the non-approved linux flashing tool at that time, and failed to backup the parts that, err, I really didn't want blatted... So within hours I had a new phone that I, err, couldn't make calls on, which was marginally annoying. And the tech preview of Debian wasn't really worth it, as it was fairly much unusable (which was marginally upsetting, but hey) - after a few more hours / days of playing around I got the IMEI number back in to the Gemini and put back on the stock android image. I didn't at this point have working bluetooth or wifi, which was a bit of a pain too, turns out the mac addresses for those are also stored in the nvram (doh!), that's now mostly working through a bit of collaboration with another Gemini owner, my Gemini currently uses the mac addresses from his device... which I'll need to fix in the next month or so, else we'll have a mac address collision, probably.

Overall, it's not a bad machine, the keyboard isn't quite as good as I was hoping for, the phone functionality is not bad once you're on a call, but not great until you're on a call, and I certainly wouldn't use it to replace the Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge that I currently use as my full time phone. It is however really rather useful as a sysadmin tool when you don't want to be lugging a full laptop around with you, the keyboard is better than using the on screen keyboard on the phone, the ssh client is "good enough" to get to what I need, and the terminal font isn't bad. I look forward to seeing where it goes, I'm happy to have been an early backer, as I don't think I'd pay the current retail price for one.

by Brett Parker (iDunno@sommitrealweird.co.uk) at June 07, 2018 01:04 PM

February 21, 2018

MJ Ray

How hard can typing æ, ø and å be?

Petter Reinholdtsen: How hard can æ, ø and å be? comments on the rubbish state of till printers and their mishandling of foreign characters.

Last week, I was trying to type an email, on a tablet, in Dutch. The tablet was running something close to Android and I was using a Bluetooth keyboard, which seemed to be configured correctly for my location in England.

Dutch doesn’t even have many accents. I wanted an e acute (é). If you use the on screen keyboard, this is actually pretty easy, just press and hold e and slide to choose the accented one… but holding e on a Bluetooth keyboard? eeeeeeeeeee!

Some guides suggest Alt and e, then e. Apparently that works, but not on keyboards set to Great British… because, I guess, we don’t want any of that foreign muck since the Brexit vote, or something(!)

Even once you figure out that madness and switch the keyboard back to international, which also enables alt i, u, n and so on to do other accents, I can’t find grave, check, breve or several other accents. I managed to send the emails in Dutch but I’d struggle with various other languages.

Have I missed a trick or what are the Android developers thinking? Why isn’t there a Compose key by default? Is there any way to get one?

by mjr at February 21, 2018 04:14 PM

March 01, 2017

Brett Parker (iDunno)

Using the Mythic Beasts IPv4 -> IPv6 Proxy for Websites on a v6 only Pi and getting the right REMOTE_ADDR

So, more because I was intrigued than anything else, I've got a pi3 from Mythic Beasts, they're supplied with IPv6 only connectivity and the file storage is NFS over a private v4 network. The proxy will happily redirect requests to either http or https to the Pi, but this results (without turning on the Proxy Protocol) with getting remote addresses in your logs of the proxy servers, which is not entirely useful.

I've cheated a bit, because the turning on of ProxyProtocol for the hostedpi.com addresses is currently not exposed to customers (it's on the list!), to do it without access to Mythic's backends use your own domainname (I've also got https://pi3.sommitrealweird.co.uk/ mapped to this Pi).

So, first step first, we get our RPi and we make sure that we can login to it via ssh (I'm nearly always on a v6 connection anyways, so this was a simple case of sshing to the v6 address of the Pi). I then installed haproxy and apache2 on the Pi and went about configuring them, with apache2 I changed it to listen to localhost only and on ports 8080 and 4443, I hadn't at this point enabled the ssl module so, really, the change for 4443 didn't kick in. Here's my /etc/apache2/ports.conf file:

# If you just change the port or add more ports here, you will likely also
# have to change the VirtualHost statement in
# /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf

Listen [::1]:8080

<IfModule ssl_module>
       Listen [::1]:4443
</IfModule>

<IfModule mod_gnutls.c>
       Listen [::1]:4443
</IfModule>

# vim: syntax=apache ts=4 sw=4 sts=4 sr noet

I then edited /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf to change the VirtualHost line to [::1]:8080.

So, with that in place, now we deploy haproxy infront of it, the basic /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg config is:

global
       log /dev/log    local0
       log /dev/log    local1 notice
       chroot /var/lib/haproxy
       stats socket /run/haproxy/admin.sock mode 660 level admin
       stats timeout 30s
       user haproxy
       group haproxy
       daemon

       # Default SSL material locations
       ca-base /etc/ssl/certs
       crt-base /etc/ssl/private

       # Default ciphers to use on SSL-enabled listening sockets.
       # For more information, see ciphers(1SSL). This list is from:
       #  https://hynek.me/articles/hardening-your-web-servers-ssl-ciphers/
       ssl-default-bind-ciphers ECDH+AESGCM:DH+AESGCM:ECDH+AES256:DH+AES256:ECDH+AES128:DH+AES:ECDH+3DES:DH+3DES:RSA+AESGCM:RSA+AES:RSA+3DES:!aNULL:!MD5:!DSS
       ssl-default-bind-options no-sslv3

defaults
       log     global
       mode    http
       option  httplog
       option  dontlognull
        timeout connect 5000
        timeout client  50000
        timeout server  50000
       errorfile 400 /etc/haproxy/errors/400.http
       errorfile 403 /etc/haproxy/errors/403.http
       errorfile 408 /etc/haproxy/errors/408.http
       errorfile 500 /etc/haproxy/errors/500.http
       errorfile 502 /etc/haproxy/errors/502.http
       errorfile 503 /etc/haproxy/errors/503.http
       errorfile 504 /etc/haproxy/errors/504.http

frontend any_http
        option httplog
        option forwardfor

        acl is_from_proxy src 2a00:1098:0:82:1000:3b:1:1 2a00:1098:0:80:1000:3b:1:1
        tcp-request connection expect-proxy layer4 if is_from_proxy

        bind :::80
        default_backend any_http

backend any_http
        server apache2 ::1:8080

Obviously after that you then do:

systemctl restart apache2
systemctl restart haproxy

Now you have a proxy protocol'd setup from the proxy servers, and you can still talk directly to the Pi over ipv6, you're not yet logging the right remote ips, but we're a step closer. Next enable mod_remoteip in apache2:

a2enmod remoteip

And add a file, /etc/apache2/conf-available/remoteip-logformats.conf containing:

LogFormat "%v:%p %a %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" remoteip_vhost_combined

And edit the /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf to change the CustomLog line to use remoteip_vhost_combined rather than combined as the LogFormat and add the relevant RemoteIP settings:

RemoteIPHeader X-Forwarded-For
RemoteIPTrustedProxy ::1

CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log remoteip_vhost_combined

Now, enable the config and restart apache2:

a2enconf remoteip-logformats
systemctl restart apache2

Now you'll get the right remote ip in the logs (cool, huh!), and, better still, the environment that gets pushed through to cgi scripts/php/whatever is now also correct.

So, you can now happily visit http://www.<your-pi-name>.hostedpi.com/, e.g. http://www.srwpi.hostedpi.com/.

Next up, you'll want something like dehydrated - I grabbed the packaged version from debian's jessie-backports repository - so that you can make yourself some nice shiny SSL certificates (why wouldn't you, after all!), once you've got dehydrated installed, you'll probably want to tweak it a bit, I have some magic extra files that I use, I also suggest getting the dehydrated-apache2 package, which just makes it all much easier too.

/etc/dehydrated/conf.d/mail.sh:

CONTACT_EMAIL="my@email.address"

/etc/dehydrated/conf.d/domainconfig.sh:

DOMAINS_D="/etc/dehydrated/domains.d"

/etc/dehydrated/domains.d/srwpi.hostedpi.com:

HOOK="/etc/dehydrated/hooks/srwpi"

/etc/dehydrated/hooks/srwpi:

#!/bin/sh
action="$1"
domain="$2"

case $action in
  deploy_cert)
    privkey="$3"
    cert="$4"
    fullchain="$5"
    chain="$6"
    cat "$privkey" "$fullchain" > /etc/ssl/private/srwpi.pem
    chmod 640 /etc/ssl/private/srwpi.pem
    ;;
  *)
    ;;
esac

/etc/dehydrated/hooks/srwpi has the execute bit set (chmod +x /etc/dehydrated/hooks/srwpi), and is really only there so that the certificate can be used easily in haproxy.

And finally the file /etc/dehydrated/domains.txt:

www.srwpi.hostedpi.com srwpi.hostedpi.com

Obviously, use your own pi name in there, or better yet, one of your own domain names that you've mapped to the proxies.

Run dehydrated in cron mode (it's noisy, but meh...):

dehydrated -c

That s then generated you some shiny certificates (hopefully). For now, I'll just tell you how to do it through the /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl.conf file, just edit that file and change the SSLCertificateFile and SSLCertificateKeyFile to point to /var/lib/dehydrated/certs/www.srwpi.hostedpi.com/fullchain.pem and /var/llib/dehydrated/certs/ww.srwpi.hostedpi.com/privkey.pem files, do the edit for the CustomLog as you did for the other default site, and change the VirtualHost to be [::1]:443 and enable the site:

a2ensite default-ssl
a2enmod ssl

And restart apache2:

systemctl restart apache2

Now time to add some bits to haproxy.cfg, usefully this is only a tiny tiny bit of extra config:

frontend any_https
        option httplog
        option forwardfor

        acl is_from_proxy src 2a00:1098:0:82:1000:3b:1:1 2a00:1098:0:80:1000:3b:1:1
        tcp-request connection expect-proxy layer4 if is_from_proxy

        bind :::443 ssl crt /etc/ssl/private/srwpi.pem

        default_backend any_https

backend any_https
        server apache2 ::1:4443 ssl ca-file /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt

Restart haproxy:

systemctl restart haproxy

And we're all done! REMOTE_ADDR will appear as the correct remote address in the logs, and in the environment.

by Brett Parker (iDunno@sommitrealweird.co.uk) at March 01, 2017 06:35 PM

October 18, 2016

MJ Ray

Rinse and repeat

Forgive me, reader, for I have sinned. It has been over a year since my last blog post. Life got busy. Paid work. Another round of challenges managing my chronic illness. Cycle campaigning. Fun bike rides. Friends. Family. Travels. Other social media to stroke. I’m still reading some of the planets where this blog post should appear and commenting on some, so I’ve not felt completely cut off, but I am surprised how many people don’t allow comments on their blogs any more (or make it too difficult for me with reCaptcha and the like).

The main motive for this post is to test some minor upgrades, though. Hi everyone. How’s it going with you? I’ll probably keep posting short updates in the future.

Go in peace to love and serve the web. 🙂

by mjr at October 18, 2016 04:28 AM

March 09, 2015

Ben Francis

Pinned Apps – An App Model for the Web

(re-posted from a page I created on the Mozilla wiki on 17th December 2014)

Problem Statement

The per-OS app store model has resulted in a market where a small number of OS companies have a large amount of control, limiting choice for users and app developers. In order to get things done on mobile devices users are restricted to using apps from a single app store which have to be downloaded and installed on a compatible device in order to be useful.

Design Concept

Concept Overview

The idea of pinned apps is to turn the apps model on its head by making apps something you discover simply by searching and browsing the web. Web apps do not have to be installed in order to be useful, “pinning” is an optional step where the user can choose to split an app off from the rest of the web to persist it on their device and use it separately from the browser.

Pinned_apps_overview

”If you think of the current app store experience as consumers going to a grocery store to buy packaged goods off a shelf, the web is more like a hunter-gatherer exploring a forest and discovering new tools and supplies along their journey.”

App Discovery

A Web App Manifest linked from a web page says “I am part of a web app you can use separately from the browser”. Users can discover web apps simply by searching or browsing the web, and use them instantly without needing to install them first.

Pinned_apps_discovery

”App discovery could be less like shopping, and more like discovering a new piece of inventory while exploring a new level in a computer game.”

App Pinning

If the user finds a web app useful they can choose to split it off from the rest of the web to persist it on their device and use it separately from the browser. Pinned apps can provide a more app-like experience for that part of the web with no browser chrome and get their own icon on the homescreen.

Pinned_apps_pinning

”For the user pinning apps becomes like collecting pin badges for all their favourite apps, rather than cluttering their device with apps from an app store that they tried once but turned out not to be useful.”

Deep Linking

Once a pinned app is registered as managing its own part of the web (defined by URL scope), any time the user navigates to a URL within that scope, it will open in the app. This allows deep linking to a particular page inside an app and seamlessly linking from one app to another.

Pinned_apps_linking

”The browser is like a catch-all app for pages which don’t belong to a particular pinned app.”

Going Offline

Pinning an app could download its contents to the device to make it work offline, by registering a Service Worker for the app’s URL scope.

Pinned_apps_offline

”Pinned apps take pinned tabs to the next level by actually persisting an app on the device. An app pin is like an anchor point to tether a collection of web pages to a device.”

Multiple Pages

A web app is a collection of web pages dedicated to a particular task. You should be able to have multiple pages of the app open at the same time. Each app could be represented in the task manager as a collection of sheets, pinned together by the app.

Pinned_app_pages

”Exploding apps out into multiple sheets could really differentiate the Firefox OS user experience from all other mobile app platforms which are limited to one window per app.”

Travel Guide

Even in a world without app stores there would still be a need for a curated collection of content. The Marketplace could become less of a grocery store, and more of a crowdsourced travel guide for the web.

Pinned_apps_guide

”If a user discovers an app which isn’t yet included in the guide, they could be given the opportunity to submit it. The guide could be curated by the community with descriptions, ratings and tags.”

3 Questions

Pinnged_apps_pinned

What value (the importance, worth or usefulness of something) does your idea deliver?

The pinned apps concept makes web apps instantly useful by making “installation” optional. It frees users from being tied to a single app store and gives them more choice and control. It makes apps searchable and discoverable like the rest of the web and gives developers the freedom of where to host their apps and how to monetise them. It allows Mozilla to grow a catalogue of apps so large and diverse that no walled garden can compete, by leveraging its user base to discover the apps and its community to curate them.

What technological advantage will your idea deliver and why is this important?

Pinned apps would be implemented with emerging web standards like Web App Manifests and Service Workers which add new layers of functionality to the web to make it a compelling platform for mobile apps. Not just for Firefox OS, but for any user agent which implements the standards.

Why would someone invest time or pay money for this idea?

Users would benefit from a unique new web experience whilst also freeing themselves from vendor lock-in. App developers can reduce their development costs by creating one searchable and discoverable web app for multiple platforms. For Mozilla, pinned apps could leverage the unique properties of the web to differentiate Firefox OS in a way that is difficult for incumbents to follow.

UI Mockups

App Search

Pinned_apps_search

Pin App

Pin_app

Pin Page

Pin_page

Multiple Pages

Multiple_pages

App Directory

App_directory

Implementation

Web App Manifest

A manifest is linked from a web page with a link relation:

  <link rel=”manifest” href=”/manifest.json”>

A manifest can specify an app name, icon, display mode and orientation:

 {
   "name": "GMail"
   "icons": {...},
   "display": "standalone",
   "orientation": “portrait”,
   ...
 }

There is a proposal for a manifest to be able to specify an app scope:

 {
   ...
   "scope": "/"
   ...
 }

Service Worker

There is also a proposal to be able to reference a Service Worker from within the manifest:

 {
   ...
   service_worker: {
     src: "app.js",
     scope: "/"
   ...
 }

A Service Worker has an install method which can populate a cache with a web app’s resources when it is registered:

 this.addEventListener('install', function(event) {
  event.waitUntil(
    caches.create('v1').then(function(cache) {
     return cache.add(
        '/index.html',
        '/style.css',
        '/script.js',
        '/favicon.ico'
      );
    }, function(error) {
        console.error('error populating cache ' + error);
    };
  );
 });

So that the app can then respond to requests for resources when offline:

 this.addEventListener('fetch', function(event) {
  event.respondWith(
    caches.match(event.request).catch(function() {
      return event.default();
    })
  );
 });

by tola at March 09, 2015 03:54 PM

December 11, 2014

Ben Francis

The Times They Are A Changin’ (Open Web Remix)

In the run up to the “Mozlandia” work week in Portland, and in reflection of the last three years of the Firefox OS project, for a bit of fun I’ve reworked a Bob Dylan song to celebrate our incredible journey so far.

Here’s a video featuring some of my memories from the last three years, with Siobhan (my fiancée) and me singing the song at you! There are even lyrics so you can sing along 😉

“Keep on rockin’ the free web” — Potch

by tola at December 11, 2014 11:26 AM

July 10, 2014

James Taylor

SSL / TLS

Is it annoying or not that everyone says SSL Certs and SSL when they really mean TLS?

Does anyone actually mean SSL? Have there been any accidents through people confusing the two?


July 10, 2014 02:09 PM

Cloud Computing Deployments … Revisited.

So its been a few years since I’ve posted, because its been so much hard work, and we’ve been pushing really hard on some projects which I just can’t talk about – annoyingly. Anyways, March 20th , 2011 I talked about Continual Integration and Continual Deployment and the Cloud and discussed two main methods – having what we now call ‘Gold Standards’ vs continually updating.

The interesting thing is that as we’ve grown as a company, and as we’ve become more ‘Enterprise’, we’ve brought in more systems administrators and begun to really separate the deployments from the development. The other thing is we have separated our services out into multiple vertical strands, which have different roles. This means we have slightly different processes for Banking or Payment based modules then we do from marketing modules. We’re able to segregate operational and content from personally identifiable information – PII having much higher regulation on who can (and auditing of who does) access.

Several other key things had to change: for instance, things like SSL keys of the servers shouldn’t be kept in the development repo. Now, of course not, I hear you yell, but its a very blurry line. For instance, should the Django configuration be kept in the repo? Well, yes, because that defines the modules and things like URLs. Should the nginx config be kept in the repo? Well, oh. if you keep *that* in then you would keep your SSL certs in…

So the answer becomes having lots of repo’s. One repo per application (django wise), and one repo per deployment containing configurations. And then you start looking at build tools to bring, for a particular server or cluster of servers up and running.

The process (for our more secure, audited services) is looking like a tool to bring an AMI up, get everything installed and configured, and then take a snapshot, and then a second tool that takes that AMI (and all the others needed) and builds the VPC inside of AWS. Its a step away from the continual deployment strategy, but it is mostly automated.


July 10, 2014 02:09 PM

June 12, 2014

Paul Tansom

Beginning irc

After some discussion last night at PHP Hants about the fact that irc is a great facilitator of support / discussion, but largely ignored because there is rarely enough information for a new user to get going I decided it may be worth putting together a howto type post so here goes…

What is irc?

First of all, what on earth is it? I’m tempted to describe it as Twitter done right years before Twitter even existed, but I’m a geek and I’ve been using irc for years. It has a long heritage, but unlike the ubiquitous email it hasn’t made the transition into mainstream use. In terms of usage it has similarities to things like Twitter and Instant Messaging. Let’s take a quick look at this.

Twitter allows you to broadcast messages, they get published and anyone who is subscribed to your feed can read what you say. Everything is pretty instant, and if somebody is watching the screen at the right time they can respond straight away. Instant Messaging on the other hand, is more of a direct conversation with a single person, or sometimes a group of people, but it too is pretty instantaneous – assuming, of course, that there’s someone reading what you’ve said. Both of these techonologies are pretty familiar to many. If you go to the appropriate website you are given the opportunity to sign up and either use a web based client or download one.

It is much the same for irc in terms of usage, although conversations are grouped into channels which generally focus on a particular topic rather than being generally broadcast (Twitter) or more specifically directed (Instant Messaging). The downside is that in most cases you don’t get a web page with clear instructions of how to sign up, download a client and find where the best place is to join the conversation.

Getting started

There are two things you need to get going with irc, a client and somewhere to connect to. Let’s put that into a more familiar context.

The client is what you use to connect with; this can be an application – so as an example Outlook or Thunderbird would be a mail client, or IE, Firefox, Chrome or Safari are examples of clients for web pages – or it can be a web page that does the same thing – so if you go to twitter.com and login you are using the web page as your Twitter client. Somewhere to connect to can be compared to a web address, or if you’ve got close enough to the configuration of your email to see the details, your mail server address.

Let’s start with the ‘somewhere to connect to‘ bit. Freenode is one of the most popular irc servers, so let’s take a look. First we’ll see what we can find out from their website, http://freenode.net/.

freenode

There’s a lot of very daunting information there for somebody new to irc, so ignore most of it and follow the Webchat link on the left.

webchat

That’s all very well and good, but what do we put in there? I guess the screenshot above gives a clue, but if you actually visit the page the entry boxes will be blank. Well first off there’s the Nickname, this can be pretty much anything you like, no need to register it – stick to the basics of letters, numbers and some simple punctuation (if you want to), keep it short and so long as nobody else is already using it you should be fine; if it doesn’t work try another. Channels is the awkward one, how do you know what channels there are? If you’re lucky you’re looking into this because you’ve been told there’s a channel there and hopefully you’ve been given the channel name. For now let’s just use the PHP Hants channel, so that would be #phph in the Channels box. Now all you need to do is type in the captcha, ignore the tick boxes and click Connect and you are on the irc channel and ready to chat. Down the right you’ll see a list of who else is there, and in the main window there will be a bit of introductory information (e.g. topic for the channel) and depending on how busy it is anything from nothing to a fast scrolling screen of text.

phph

If you’ve miss typed there’s a chance you’ll end up in a channel specially created for you because it didn’t exist; don’t worry, just quit and try again (I’ll explain that process shortly).

For now all you really need to worry about is typing in text an posting it, this is as simple as typing it into the entry box at the bottom of the page and pressing return. Be polite, be patient and you’ll be fine. There are plenty of commands that you can use to do things, but for now the only one you need to worry about is the one to leave, this is:

/quit

Type it in the entry box, press return and you’ve disconnected from the server. The next thing to look into is using a client program since this is far more flexible, but I’ll save that for another post.

The post Beginning irc appeared first on Linuxlore.

by Paul Tansom at June 12, 2014 04:27 PM

May 06, 2014

Richard Lewis

Refocusing Ph.D

Actual progress on this Ph.D revision has been quite slow. My current efforts are on improving the focus of the thesis. One of the criticisms the examiners made (somewhat obliquely) was that it wasn't very clear exactly what my subject was: musicology? music information retrieval? computational musicology? And the reason for this was that I failed to make that clear to myself. It was only at the writing up stage, when I was trying to put together a coherent argument, that I decided to try and make it a story about music information retrieval (MIR). I tried to argue that MIR's existing evaluation work (which was largely modelled on information retrieval evaluation from the text world) only took into account the music information needs of recreational users of MIR systems, and that there was very little in the way of studying the music information seeking behaviour of "serious" users. However, the examiners didn't even accept that information retrieval was an important problem for musicology, nevermind that there was work to be done in examining music information needs of music scholarship.

So I'm using this as an excuse to shift the focus away from MIR a little and towards something more like computational musicology and music informatics. I'm putting together a case study of a computational musicology toolkit called music21. Doing this allows me to focus in more detail on a smaller and more distinct community of users (rather than attempting to studying musicologists in general which was another problematic feature of the thesis), it makes it much clearer what kind of music research can be addressed using the technology (all of MIR is either far too diverse or far too generic, depending on how you want to spin it), and also allows me to work with the actually Purcell Plus project materials using the toolkit.

May 06, 2014 11:16 PM

March 27, 2014

Richard Lewis

Taking notes in Haskell

The other day we had a meeting at work with a former colleague (now at QMUL) to discuss general project progress. The topics covered included the somewhat complicated workflow that we're using for doing optical music recognition (OMR) on early printed music sources. It includes mensural notation specific OMR software called Aruspix. Aruspix itself is fairly accurate in its output, but the reason why our workflow is non-trivial is that the sources we're working with are partbooks; that is, each part (or voice) of a multi-part texture is written on its own part of the page, or even on a different page. This is very different to modern score notation in which each part is written in vertical alignment. In these sources, we don't even know where separate pieces begin and end, and they can actually begin in the middle of a line. The aim is to go from the double page scans ("openings") to distinct pieces with their complete and correctly aligned parts.

Anyway, our colleague from QMUL was very interested in this little part of the project and suggested that we spend the afternoon, after the style of good software engineering, formalising the workflow. So that's what we did. During the course of the conversation diagrams were drawn on the whiteboard. However (and this was really the point of this post) I made notes in Haskell. It occurred to me a few minutes into the conversation that laying out some types and the operations over those types that comprise our workflow is pretty much exactly the kind of formal specification we needed.

Here's what I typed:

module MusicalDocuments where

import Data.Maybe

-- A document comprises some number of openings (double page spreads)
data Document = Document [Opening]

-- An opening comprises one or two pages (usually two)
data Opening = Opening (Page, Maybe Page)

-- A page comprises multiple systems
data Page = Page [System]

-- Each part is the line for a particular voice
data Voice = Superius | Discantus | Tenor | Contratenor | Bassus

-- A part comprises a list of musical sybmols, but it may span mutliple systems
--(including partial systems)
data Part = Part [MusicalSymbol]

-- A piece comprises some number of sections
data Piece = Piece [Section]

-- A system is a collection of staves
data System = System [Staff]

-- A staff is a list of atomic graphical symbols
data Staff = Staff [Glyph]

-- A section is a collection of parts
data Section = Section [Part]

-- These are the atomic components, MusicalSymbols are semantic and Glyphs are
--syntactic (i.e. just image elements)
data MusicalSymbol = MusicalSymbol
data Glyph = Glyph

-- If this were real, Image would abstract over some kind of binary format
data Image = Image

-- One of the important properties we need in order to be able to construct pieces
-- from the scanned components is to be able to say when objects of the some of the
-- types are strictly contiguous, i.e. this staff immediately follows that staff
class Contiguous a where
  immediatelyFollows :: a -> a -> Bool
  immediatelyPrecedes :: a -> a -> Bool
  immediatelyPrecedes a b = b `immediatelyFollows` a

instance Contiguous Staff where
  immediatelyFollows :: Staff -> Staff -> Bool
  immediatelyFollows = undefined

-- Another interesting property of this data set is that there are a number of
-- duplicate scans of openings, but nothing in the metadata that indicates this,
-- so our workflow needs to recognise duplicates
instance Eq Opening where
  (==) :: Opening -> Opening -> Bool
  (==) a b = undefined

-- Maybe it would also be useful to have equality for staves too?
instance Eq Staff where
  (==) :: Staff -> Staff -> Bool
  (==) a b = undefined

-- The following functions actually represent the workflow

collate :: [Document]
collate = undefined

scan :: Document -> [Image]
scan = undefined

split :: Image -> Opening
split = undefined

paginate :: Opening -> [Page]
paginate = undefined

omr :: Page -> [System]
omr = undefined

segment :: System -> [Staff]
segment = undefined

tokenize :: Staff -> [Glyph]
tokenize = undefined

recogniseMusicalSymbol :: Glyph -> Maybe MusicalSymbol
recogniseMusicalSymbol = undefined

part :: [Glyph] -> Maybe Part
part gs =
  if null symbols then Nothing else Just $ Part symbols
  where symbols = mapMaybe recogniseMusicalSymbol gs

alignable :: Part -> Part -> Bool
alignable = undefined

piece :: [Part] -> Maybe Piece
piece = undefined

I then added the comments and implemented the part function later on. Looking at it now, I keep wondering whether the types of the functions really make sense; especially where a return type is a type that's just a label for a list or pair.

I haven't written much Haskell code before, and given that I've only implemented one function here, I still haven't written much Haskell code. But it seemed to be a nice way to formalise this procedure. Any criticisms (or function implementations!) welcome.

March 27, 2014 11:13 PM

February 06, 2014

Adam Bower (quinophex)

I finally managed to beat my nemesis!

I purchased this book http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/0738206679 (Linked, by Barabasi) on the 24th of December 2002, I had managed to make 6 or 7 aborted attempts at reading it to completion where life had suddenly got busy and just took over. This meant that I put the book down and didn't pick it up again until things were less hectic some time later and I started again.

Anyhow, I finally beat the book a few nights ago, my comprehension of it was pretty low anyhow but at least it is done. Just shows I need to read lots more given how little went in.




comment count unavailable comments

February 06, 2014 10:40 PM

February 01, 2014

Adam Bower (quinophex)

Why buying a Mio Cyclo 305 HC cycling computer was actually a great idea.

I finally made it back out onto the bike today for the first time since September last year. I'd spent some time ill in October and November which meant I had to stop exercising and as a result I've gained loads of weight over the winter and it turns out also become very unfit which can be verified by looking at the Strava ride from today: http://www.strava.com/activities/110354158

Anyhow, a nice thing about this ride is that I can record it on Strava and get this data about how unfit I have become, this is because last year I bought a Mio Cyclo 305 HC cycle computer http://eu.mio.com/en_gb/mio-cyclo-305-hc.htm from Halfords reduced to £144.50 (using a British Cycling discount). I was originally going to get a Garmin 500 but Amazon put the price up from £149.99 the day I was going to buy it to £199.99.

I knew when I got the Mio that it had a few issues surrounding usability and features but it was cheap enough at under £150 that I figured that even if I didn't get on with it I'd at least have a cadence sensor and heart rate monitor so I could just buy a Garmin 510 when they sorted out the firmware bugs with that and the price came down a bit which is still my longer term intention.

So it turns out a couple of weeks ago I plugged my Mio into a Windows VM when I was testing USB support and carried out a check for new firmware. I was rather surprised to see a new firmware update and new set of map data was available for download. So I installed it think I wasn't going to get any new features from it as Mio had released some new models but it turns out that the new firmware actually enables a single feature (amongst other things, they also tidied up the UI and sorted a few other bugs along with some other features) that makes the device massively more useful as it now also creates files in .fit format which can be uploaded directly to Strava.

This is massively useful for me as although the Mio always worked in Linux as the device is essentially just a USB mass storage device but you would have to do an intermediate step of having to use https://github.com/rhyas/GPXConverter to convert the files from the Mio-centric GPX format to something Strava would recognise. Now I can just browse to the folder and upload the file directly which is very handy.

All in it turns out that buying a Mio which reading reviews and forums were full of doom and gloom means I can wait even longer before considering replacement with a garmin.

comment count unavailable comments

February 01, 2014 02:11 PM

January 01, 2014

John Woodard

A year in Prog!


It's New Year's Day 2014 and I'm reflecting on the music of past year.

Album wise there were several okay...ish releases in the world of Progressive Rock. Steven Wilson's The Raven That Refused To Sing not the absolute masterpiece some have eulogised a solid effort though but it did contain some filler. Motorpsyco entertained with Still Life With Eggplant not as good as their previous album but again a solid effort. Magenta as ever didn't disappoint with The 27 Club, wishing Tina Booth a swift recovery from her ill health.

The Three stand out albums in no particular order for me were Edison's Children's Final Breath Before November which almost made it as album of the year and Big Big Train with English Electric Full Power which combined last years Part One and this years Part Two with some extra goodies to make the whole greater than the sum of the parts. Also Adrian Jones of Nine Stones Close fame pulled one out of the bag with his side Project Jet Black Sea which was very different and a challenging listen, hard going at first but surprisingly very good. This man is one superb guitarist especially if you like emotion wrung out of the instrument like David Gilmore or Steve Rothery.

The moniker of Album of the Year this year goes to Fish for the incredible Feast of Consequences. A real return to form and his best work since Raingods With Zippos. The packaging of the deluxe edition with a splendid book featuring the wonderful artwork of Mark Wilkinson was superb. A real treat with a very thought provoking suite about the first world war really hammed home the saying "Lest we forget". A fine piece that needs to be heard every November 11th.


Gig wise again Fish at the Junction in Cambridge was great. His voice may not be what it was in 1985 but he is the consummate performer, very at home on the stage. As a raconteur between songs he is as every bit as entertaining as he is singing songs themselves.

The March Marillion Convention in Port Zealand, Holland where they performed their masterpiece Brave was very special as every performance of incredible album is. The Marillion Conventions are always special but Brave made this one even more special than it would normally be.
Gig of the year goes again to Marillion at Aylesbury Friars in November. I had waited thirty years and forty odd shows to see them perform Garden Party segued into Market Square Heroes that glorious night it came to pass, I'm am now one very happy Progger or should that be Proggie? Nevermind Viva Progressive Rock!

by BigJohn (aka hexpek) (noreply@blogger.com) at January 01, 2014 07:56 PM

December 01, 2013

Paul Tansom

Scratch in a network environment

I have been running a Code Club at my local Primary School for a while now, and thought it was about time I put details of a few tweaks I’ve made to the default Scratch install to make things easier. So here goes:

With the default install of Scratch (on Windows) projects are saved to the C: drive. For a network environment, with pupils work stored on a network drive so they always have access whichever machine they sit at, this isn’t exactly helpful. It also isn’t ideal that they can explore the C: drive in spite of profile restrictions (although it isn’t the end of the world as there is little they can do from Scratch).

save-orig

After a bit of time with Google I found the answer, and since it didn’t immediately leap out at me when I was searching I thought I’d post it here (perhaps my Google Fu was weak that day). It is actually quite simple, especially for the average Code Club volunteer I should imagine; just edit the scratch.ini file. This is, as would be expected, located in:

C:\Program Files\Scratch\Scratch.ini

Initially it looks like this:

ini-orig

Pretty standard stuff, but unfortunately no comments to indicate what else you can do with it. As it happens you can add the following two lines (for example):

Home=U:
VisibleDrives=U:

To get this:

ini-new

They do exactly what is says on the tin. If you click on the Home button in a file dialogue box then you only get the drive(s) specified. You can also put a full path in if you want to put the home directory further down the directory structure.

save-new1

The VisibleDrives option restricts what you can see if you click on the Computer button in a file dialogue box. If you want to allow more visible drives then separate them with a comma.

save-new2

You can do the same with a Mac (for the home drive), just use the appropriate directory format (i.e. no drive letter and the opposite direction slash).

There is more that you can do, so take a look at the Scratch documentation here. For example if you use a * in the directory path it is replaced by the name of the currently logged on user.

Depending on your network environment it may be handy for your Code Club to put the extra resources on a shared network drive and open up an extra drive in the VisibleDrives. One I haven’t tried yet it is the proxy setting, which I hope will allow me to upload projects to the Scratch website. It goes something like:

ProxyServer=[server name or IP address]
ProxyPort=[port number]

The post Scratch in a network environment appeared first on Linuxlore.

by Paul Tansom at December 01, 2013 07:00 PM

January 16, 2013

John Woodard

LinuxMint 14 Add Printer Issue


 LinuxMint 14 Add Printer Issue



 

I wanted to print from my LinuxMint 14 (Cinnamon) PC via a shared Windows printer on my network. Problem is it isn’t found by the printers dialog in system settings. I thought I’d done all the normal things to get samba to play nice like rearranging the name resolve order in /etc/samba/smb.conf to a more sane bcast host lmhosts wins. Having host and wins, neither of which I’m using first in the order cocks things up some what. Every time I tried to search for the printer in the system setting dialog it told me “FirewallD is not running. Network printer detection needs services mdns, ipp, ipp-client and samba-client enabled on firewall.” So much scratching of the head there then, because as far as I can tell there ain’t no daemon by that name available!

It turns out thanks to /pseudomorph this has been a bug since LinuxMint12 (based on Ubuntu 11.10). It’s due to that particular daemon (Windows people daemon pretty much = service) being Fedora specific and should have no place in a Debian/Ubuntu based distribution. Bugs of this nature really should be ironed out sooner.

Anyway the simple fix is to use the more traditional approach using the older printer dialog which is accessed by inputting system-config-printer at the command line. Which works just fine so why the new (over a year old) printer config dialog that is inherently broken I ask myself.

The CUPS web interface also works apparently http://localhost:631/ in your favourite browser which should be there as long as CUPS is installed which it is in LinuxMint by default.

So come on Minty people get your bug squashing boots on and stamp on this one please.

Update

Bug #871985 only affects Gnome3 so as long as its not affecting Unity that will be okay Canonical will it!

by BigJohn (aka hexpek) (noreply@blogger.com) at January 16, 2013 12:39 AM

August 20, 2012

David Reynolds

On Music

Lately, (well I say lately, I think it’s been the same for a few years now) I have been finding that it is very rare that an album comes along that affects me in a way that music I heard 10 years ago seem to. That is not to say that I have not heard any music that I like in that time, it just doesn’t seem to mean as music that has been in my life for years. What I am trying to work out is if that is a reflection on the state of music, of how I experience music or just me.

Buying

Buying music was always quite an experience. I would spend weeks, months and sometimes longer saving up to buy some new music. Whether I knew exactly what I wanted or just wanted “something else by this artist” I would spend some time browsing the racks weighing up what was the best value for my money. In the days before the internet, if you wanted to research an artist’s back catalogue, you were generally out of luck unless you had access to books about the artists. This lead to the thrill of finding a hidden gem in the racks that you didn’t know existed or had only heard rumours about. The anticipation of listening to the new music would build even more because I would have to wait until I had travelleled home before I could listen to my new purchases.

Nowadays, with the dizzying amount of music constantly pumped into our ears through the internet, radio, advertising and the plethora of styles and genres, it is difficult to sift through and find artists and music that really speak to you. Luckily, there are websites available to catalogue releases by artists so you are able to do thorough research and even preview your music before you purchase it. Of course the distribution methods have changed massively too. No longer do I have to wait until I can make it to a brick and mortar store to hand over my cash. I can now not only buy physical musical releases on CD or Vinyl online and have it delivered to my door, I can also buy digital music through iTunes, Amazon or Bandcamp or even stream the music straight to my ears through services like Spotify or Rdio. Whilst these online sales avenues are great for artists to be able to sell directly to their fans, I feel that some of the magic has been removed from the purchasing of music for me.

Listening

Listening to the music used to be an even greater event than purchasing it. After having spent the time saving up for the purchase, then the time carefully choosing the music to buy and getting it home, I would then sit myself down and listen to the music. I would immerse myself totally in the music and only listen to it (I might read the liner notes if I hadn’t exhausted them on the way home). It is difficult to imagine doing one thing for 45+ minutes without the constant interruptions from smartphones, tablet computers, games consoles and televisions these days. I can’t rememeber the last time I listened to music on good speakers or headphones (generally I listen on crappy computers speakers or to compressed audio on my iPhone through crappy headphones) without reading Twitter, replying to emails or reading copiuous amounts of information about the artists on Wikipedia. This all serves to distract from the actual enjoyment of just listening to the music.

Experience

The actual act of writing this blog post has called into sharp focus the main reason why music doesn’t seem to affect me nowadays as much as it used to - because I don’t experience it in the same way. My life has changed, I have more resposibilities and less time to just listen which makes the convenience and speed of buying digital music online much more appealing. You would think that this ‘instant music’ should be instantly satisfying but for some reason it doesn’t seem to work that way.

What changed?

I wonder if I am the only one experiencing this? My tastes in music have definitely changed a lot over the last few years, but I still find it hard to find music that I want to listen to again and again. I’m hoping I’m not alone in this, alternatively I’m hoping someone might read this and recommend some awesome music to me and cure this weird musical apathy I appear to me suffering from.

August 20, 2012 03:33 PM

On Music

Lately, (well I say lately, I think it’s been the same for a few years now) I have been finding that it is very rare that an album comes along that affects me in a way that music I heard 10 years ago seem to. That is not to say that I have not heard any music that I like in that time, it just doesn’t seem to mean as music that has been in my life for years. What I am trying to work out is if that is a reflection on the state of music, of how I experience music or just me.

Buying

Buying music was always quite an experience. I would spend weeks, months and sometimes longer saving up to buy some new music. Whether I knew exactly what I wanted or just wanted “something else by this artist” I would spend some time browsing the racks weighing up what was the best value for my money. In the days before the internet, if you wanted to research an artist’s back catalogue, you were generally out of luck unless you had access to books about the artists. This lead to the thrill of finding a hidden gem in the racks that you didn’t know existed or had only heard rumours about. The anticipation of listening to the new music would build even more because I would have to wait until I had travelleled home before I could listen to my new purchases.

Nowadays, with the dizzying amount of music constantly pumped into our ears through the internet, radio, advertising and the plethora of styles and genres, it is difficult to sift through and find artists and music that really speak to you. Luckily, there are websites available to catalogue releases by artists so you are able to do thorough research and even preview your music before you purchase it. Of course the distribution methods have changed massively too. No longer do I have to wait until I can make it to a brick and mortar store to hand over my cash. I can now not only buy physical musical releases on CD or Vinyl online and have it delivered to my door, I can also buy digital music through iTunes, Amazon or Bandcamp or even stream the music straight to my ears through services like Spotify or Rdio. Whilst these online sales avenues are great for artists to be able to sell directly to their fans, I feel that some of the magic has been removed from the purchasing of music for me.

Listening

Listening to the music used to be an even greater event than purchasing it. After having spent the time saving up for the purchase, then the time carefully choosing the music to buy and getting it home, I would then sit myself down and listen to the music. I would immerse myself totally in the music and only listen to it (I might read the liner notes if I hadn’t exhausted them on the way home). It is difficult to imagine doing one thing for 45+ minutes without the constant interruptions from smartphones, tablet computers, games consoles and televisions these days. I can’t rememeber the last time I listened to music on good speakers or headphones (generally I listen on crappy computers speakers or to compressed audio on my iPhone through crappy headphones) without reading Twitter, replying to emails or reading copiuous amounts of information about the artists on Wikipedia. This all serves to distract from the actual enjoyment of just listening to the music.

Experience

The actual act of writing this blog post has called into sharp focus the main reason why music doesn’t seem to affect me nowadays as much as it used to - because I don’t experience it in the same way. My life has changed, I have more resposibilities and less time to just listen which makes the convenience and speed of buying digital music online much more appealing. You would think that this ‘instant music’ should be instantly satisfying but for some reason it doesn’t seem to work that way.

What changed?

I wonder if I am the only one experiencing this? My tastes in music have definitely changed a lot over the last few years, but I still find it hard to find music that I want to listen to again and again. I’m hoping I’m not alone in this, alternatively I’m hoping someone might read this and recommend some awesome music to me and cure this weird musical apathy I appear to me suffering from.

August 20, 2012 03:33 PM

June 25, 2012

Elisabeth Fosbrooke-Brown (sfr)

Black redstarts

It's difficult to use the terrace for a couple of weeks, because the black redstart family is in their summer residence at the top of a column under the roof. The chicks grow very fast, and the parents have to feed them frequently; when anyone goes out on the terrace they stop the feeding process and click shrill warnings to the chicks to stay still. I worry that if we disturb them too often or for too long the chicks will starve.

Black redstarts are called rougequeue noir (black red-tail) in French, but here they are known as rossignol des murailles (nightingale of the outside walls). Pretty!

The camera needs replacing, so there are no photos of Musatelier's rossignols des murailles, but you can see what they look like on http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rougequeue_noir.

by sunflowerinrain (noreply@blogger.com) at June 25, 2012 08:02 AM

June 16, 2012

Elisabeth Fosbrooke-Brown (sfr)

Roundabout at Mirambeau

Roundabouts are taken seriously here in France. Not so much as traffic measures (though it has been known for people to be cautioned by the local gendarmes for not signalling when leaving a roundabout, and quite rightly too), but as places to ornament.

A couple of years ago the roundabout at the edge of  Mirambeau had a make-over which included an ironwork arch and a carrelet (fishing hut on stilts). Now it has a miniature vineyard as well, and roses and other plants for which this area is known.

Need a passenger to take photo!

by sunflowerinrain (noreply@blogger.com) at June 16, 2012 12:06 PM

September 04, 2006

Ashley Howes

Some new photos

Take a look at some new photos my father and I have taken. We are experimenting with our new digital SLR with a variety of lenses.

by Ashley (noreply@blogger.com) at September 04, 2006 10:42 AM

August 30, 2006

Ashley Howes

A Collection of Comments

This is a bit of fun. A collection of comments found in code. This is from The Daily WTF.

by Ashley (noreply@blogger.com) at August 30, 2006 01:13 AM